Country's Backgrounds and Profiles...

                    education

education directory
Ed Share

 Education Resources:
Homepage | Web Search
Education Resources
Art | Film | Dance | Bands
Countries of the World
Digs UK | US | Canada
Finance | Economics/Biz
Homework Helpers | Exams
Kiddies Korner | Tots | Pets
Jobs UK/EU | US | Canada
Bartending Work
Medicine and Health
Museums and Galleries
Mystery Shopping
PE | Sports | Sporting Events
Power & Politics | Civil Rights
Print Media, TV and Radio
Problems and Advice
Shops | Fashion | Books
Subjects | Religion | Language
Technology Education & ICT
Teens | Just for Fun
Travel
Schools UK | US | Canada
Unis/Colls UK | US | Canada

 Special Features:
Essays - Full Writing Course
What is Bullying?
Stress in Teaching
Drugs
Online Education

 Guest Contributors:
The best Dad?
You're an Idiot!
Slave Caster of Freedom
Out of the mouths of babes
The Right to Life?
The Nostradamus Hoaxes
Explaining terrorism to a child
Internet 2 a scam?
Break a Rule, Bad Girl
Britannica near extinction?
The 1st time I really lied
Nigerian Scam Letters
Singular turns plural
English Writing
In debt?
The Secret Shopper
Too busy at work?
Bullying... Our Stories
Start to live your dreams
Recognize your potential
Stop worrying, please!
Public speaking
Elegant resumes
In praise of black sheep
Ritalin - Straight-jacketing?

 Webmasters' Education:
Start here - Why me?
Slow pages equal more traffic

 Finance Partners:
Cover Base Life Insurance
Finding Life Insurance Cover
Annuity Comparisons
Aviva Annuities
Buy To Let Mortgages
Commercial Insurance
Inheritance Tax
Pension Misselling
Annuities Comparison
Enhanced Annuities
Pension Annuity Answers
Annuity Office
Annuity Plan
Annuities Plan
Annuities Central
Open Market Option
Capped Drawdown
Mortgage Comparisons
Hidden Mortgages
Barclaycard PPI Claims
PPI Claims
PPI Complaints
PPI Refunds
Barclays PPI Claim
Lloyds PPI Claim
RBS PPI Claims
Wrongly Sold PPI
PPI Justice

ed-u.com's full list of pages

ed-u.com brings you the World

Extensive information about every country and geographic area in the world. Please choose a link below

The Mystery Shopping Club

(Operated by ed-u.com's sister site)


Are you a student over 18? Part-time teacher? Parent? Just someone that needs some extra income? Some free food and drinks perhaps? Would you like to pick your own hours? - Casual work is available to you now...

The following is an article taken from Choices Magazine after a visit to the Mystery Shopping Club.

"Wanted: Shopaholic nosey parker with excellent observational skills, a good ear and flexible attitude to part-time work. Anyone can apply. Work available in all areas. Must be prepared to eat free meals, enjoy shopping discounts and visit pubs - and be paid for it."

Believe it or not, the above job advertisement is not as far fetched as it sounds. If you love shopping, you'll be pleased to hear that it's possible to shop for a living. In fact, it's a multi-million pound industry for market research companies who employ "mystery shoppers" to shop up and down the country - all in the name of customer service and research.

There are a number of mystery shopping companies who organise whole armies of professional shoppers on behalf of retailers, pubs, restaurants, banks and other service industries. Their mission? To mingle in, look inconspicuous and file a report on anything from customer service to cleanliness in the restrooms.

If you visit one or two pubs in a night, you'll get your food and drink paid for, travel expenses and you'll be paid anything from £6.00 to £8.00 up for each visit.

But there is one problem with mystery shopping: truly dedicated shoppers never switch off from their work. You'll find yourself compulsively evaluating service and checking ceilings for cobwebs even when you're not on duty. It eventually becomes a part of your life.

To find out more about casual employment opportunities in the "Secret Shopper" industry, please visit ed-u.com's sister site:

Click here for the Mystery Shopping Club UK


The Transatlantic Education Mega-Site...

IMPORTANT INFORMATION ppi Have you taken out a credit card, mortgage, secured loan, unsecured loan or hire purchase agreement in the last ten years? If you have (or have had) a mortgage, loan or credit card with providers such as Abbey, Barclaycard, MBNA, Halifax, HSBC, HBOS, Lloyds TSB, Natwest, RBS or in fact any other credit provider, you may be able to reclaim up to 15,000 if you were sold PPI insurance - in most cases even if you've lost the paperwork. Learn more about PPI Claims now!

BECOME A MYSTERY SHOPPER Are you a student over 18? Part-time teacher? Or maybe a parent or just someone that needs some extra income? Some free food and drinks perhaps? Would you like to pick your own hours? Casual work is available now.

The Mystery Shopping Club provides you with an EXCEPTIONAL collation of intelligence that is crucial for anyone with an interest in Mystery Shopping. Become a Mystery Shopper now!

EXCEPTIONAL EDUCATION ADVERTISING OPPORTUNITY It is simple to get your site listed on ed-u.com! You simply pay a small one-time-only administration charge for a PERMANENT lifetime advert! Learn more about advertising on ed-u.com now!

 Mali

Country Flag of Mali


All other countries

Introduction

Geography

People

Government

Economy

Communication

Transportation

Military

Transnational Issues

Country map of Mali

Mali

Introduction

Background: The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government, and in 1992 when Mali's first democratic presidential election was held. Since his reelection in 1997, President KONARE has continued to push through political and economic reforms and to fight corruption. In 1999 he indicated he would not run for a third term.

Geography

Location: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1.24 million sq km
land: 1.22 million sq km
water: 20,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m

Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, hydropower
note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 6%
other: 67% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 780 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked

People

Population: 10,685,948 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (male 2,537,586; female 2,508,782)
15-64 years: 50% (male 2,524,969; female 2,781,762)
65 years and over: 3% (male 156,447; female 176,402) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.98% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 49.23 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 19.1 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 123.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.66 years
male: 45.5 years
female: 47.85 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.89 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian

Ethnic groups: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%

Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 31%
male: 39.4%
female: 23.1% (1995 est.)

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic

Data code: ML

Government type: republic

Capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22 September (1960)

Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (since March 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA May 2002); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Alpha Oumar KONARE reelected president; % of vote - Alpha Oumar KONARE 95.9%, Mamadou DIABY 4.1%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 July and 3 August 1997 (next to be held in two rounds in 2002); note - much of the opposition boycotted the election
election results: % of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADEMA 130, PARENA 8, CDS 4, UDD 3, PDP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA, party chairman]; Block of Alternative for the Renewal of Africa or BARA [Yoro DIAKITE]; Democratic and Social Convention or CDS [Mamadou Bakary SANGARE, chairman]; Movement for the Independence, Renaissance and Integration of Africa or MIRIA [Mohamed Lamine TRAORE, Mouhamedou DICKO]; National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL, chairman]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Yoro DIAKITE, chairman; Tiebile DRAME, secretary general]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Ali GNANGADO]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Almamy SYLLA, chairman]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE, secretary general]; Union of Democratic Forces for Progress or UFDP [Youssouf TOURE, secretary general]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Koye or MPGK; United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Cheick Oumar DIARRAH
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael RANNEBERGER
embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako
mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako
telephone: [223] 22 54 70
FAX: [223] 22 37 12

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy

Economy - overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export. In 1997, the government continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform, and the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January 1994, has pushed up economic growth. Several multinational corporations increased gold mining operations in 1996-98, and the government anticipates that Mali will become a major Sub-Saharan gold exporter in the next few years. Annual growth should remain in the 5-6% range in 2000-01, and inflation should drop under 3%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $820 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 46%
industry: 21%
services: 33% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and fishing 80% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $730 million
expenditures: $770 million, including capital expenditures of $320 million (1997 est.)

Industries: minor local consumer goods production and food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: 0.6% (1995 est.)

Electricity - production: 310 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 38.71%
hydro: 61.29%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 288 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats

Exports: $640 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: cotton 50%, gold, livestock (1998 est.)

Exports - partners: Thailand 20%, Italy 20%, China 9%, Brazil 5%, Franc Zone (1997)

Imports: $650 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, construction materials, petroleum, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners: Cote d'Ivoire 19%, France 17%, other Franc Zone and EU countries (1997)

Debt - external: $3.1 billion (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $596.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 647.25 (January 2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995)
note: since 1 January 1999, the CFAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 CFA francs per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 17,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: domestic system poor but improving; provides only minimal service
domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 14, shortwave 7 (1998)

Radios: 570,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus two repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 45,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

Transportation

Railways:
total: 729 km (linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes)
narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 15,100 km
paved: 1,827 km
unpaved: 13,273 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,815 km navigable

Ports and harbors: Koulikoro

Airports: 28 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 22
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,202,950 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,262,242 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $49 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - % of GDP: 2% (FY96)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Please click here for a guide to the country profiles

Click here for all other countries

Share

education directory



An Ed-U-Kate production. This page was produced 12th June 2000 and last edited 9th June 2015.
ed-u.com, its characters, names & related indicia ©
Add URL | Link to us | Shop | Safe Shopping Help | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | Contact Information | ArtFair | Home