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Are you a student over 18? Part-time teacher? Parent? Just someone that needs some extra income? Some free food and drinks perhaps? Would you like to pick your own hours? - Casual work is available to you now...

The following is an article taken from Choices Magazine after a visit to the Mystery Shopping Club.

"Wanted: Shopaholic nosey parker with excellent observational skills, a good ear and flexible attitude to part-time work. Anyone can apply. Work available in all areas. Must be prepared to eat free meals, enjoy shopping discounts and visit pubs - and be paid for it."

Believe it or not, the above job advertisement is not as far fetched as it sounds. If you love shopping, you'll be pleased to hear that it's possible to shop for a living. In fact, it's a multi-million pound industry for market research companies who employ "mystery shoppers" to shop up and down the country - all in the name of customer service and research.

There are a number of mystery shopping companies who organise whole armies of professional shoppers on behalf of retailers, pubs, restaurants, banks and other service industries. Their mission? To mingle in, look inconspicuous and file a report on anything from customer service to cleanliness in the restrooms.

If you visit one or two pubs in a night, you'll get your food and drink paid for, travel expenses and you'll be paid anything from £6.00 to £8.00 up for each visit.

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BECOME A MYSTERY SHOPPER Are you a student over 18? Part-time teacher? Or maybe a parent or just someone that needs some extra income? Some free food and drinks perhaps? Would you like to pick your own hours? Casual work is available now.

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He also only drank herbal tea because all proper tea is theft

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    A B C D E F G H I L M N O P R S T U W Z




    advanced developing countries
    another term for those less developed countries (LDCs) with particularly rapid industrial development; see newly industrializing economies (NIEs)




    advanced economies
    a new term used by the International Monetary FUND (IMF) for the top group in its hierarchy of advanced economies, countries in transition, and developing countries; recently published IMF statistics include the following 28 advanced economies: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, UK, US; note - this group would presumably also cover the following seven smaller countries of Andorra, Bermuda, Faroe Islands, Holy See, Liechtenstein, Monaco, and San Marino which are included in the more comprehensive group of "developed countries"




    African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States (ACP Group)
    address - Avenue Georges Henri 451, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium
    telephone - [32] (2) 743 06 00
    FAX - [32] (2) 735 55 73
    established - 6 June 1975
    aim - to manage their preferential economic and aid relationship with the EU
    members - (71) Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Zambia, Zimbabwe




    African Development Bank (AfDB)
    note - also known as Banque Africaine de Developpement (BAD)
    address - 01 BP 1387, Abidjan 01, Cote d'Ivoire
    telephone - [225] 20 44 44
    FAX - [225] 21 77 53
    established - 4 August 1963
    aim - to promote economic and social development
    regional members - (53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    nonregional members - (25) Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Kuwait, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UAE, UK, US




    Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique (ACCT)
    see Agency for the French-speaking Community (ACCT)




    Agence de la francophonie (ACCT)
    see Agency for the French-speaking Community (ACCT)




    Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation (ACCT)
    see Agency for the French-speaking Community (ACCT); acronym from Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique




    Agency for the French-Speaking Community (ACCT)
    note - formerly Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation
    address - 13 Quai Andre-Citroen, F-75015 Paris, France
    telephone - [33] (1) 44 37 33 00
    FAX - [33] (1) 45 79 14 98
    established - 20 March 1970
    name changed - 1996
    aim - to promote cultural and technical cooperation among French-speaking countries
    members - (41) Belgium, Benin, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Dominica, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Guinea, Haiti, Laos, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Moldova, Monaco, Niger, Romania, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Switzerland, Togo, Tunisia, Vanuatu, Vietnam
    associate members - (5) Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Morocco, Saint Lucia
    participating governments - (2) New Brunswick (Canada), Quebec (Canada)




    Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL)
    note - acronym from Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la America Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL)
    address - Temistocles 78, Col Polanco, CP 011560, Mexico City 5 DF, Mexico
    telephone - [52] (5) 280 4923, 280 5064, 280 2715
    FAX - [52] (5) 280 2965
    established - 14 February 1967 under the Treaty of Tlatelolco
    effective - 25 April 1969 on the 11th ratification of the treaty
    aim - to encourage the peaceful uses of atomic energy and prohibit nuclear weapons
    members - (32) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela




    Andean Community of Nations (CAN)
    note - formerly known as the Andean Group (AG), the Andean Parliament, and most recently as the Andean Common Market (Ancom)
    address - c/o General Secretariat of the Andean Community, Paseo de la Republica 3895, Casilla 18-1177, Lima 18, Peru
    telephone - [51] (1) 221 2222
    FAX - [51] (1) 221 3329
    established - 26 May 1969; present name established 1 October 1992
    effective - 16 October 1969
    aim - to promote harmonious development through economic integration
    members - (5) Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
    associate member - (1) Panama




    Andean Group (AG)
    see Andean Community of Nations (CAN)




    Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)
    note - also known as Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique (BADEA)
    address - Abdel Rahman El Mahdi Avenue, P. O. Box 2640, Khartoum, Sudan
    telephone - [249] (11) 770498, 773646, 773709
    FAX - [249] (11) 770600
    established - 18 February 1974
    effective - 16 September 1974
    aim - to promote economic development
    members - (17 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Palestine Liberation Organization; note - these are all the members of the Arab League excluding Comoros, Djibouti, Somalia, Yemen




    Arab Cooperation Council (ACC)
    established - 16 February 1989
    aim - to promote economic cooperation and integration, possibly leading to an Arab Common Market
    members - (4) Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Yemen




    Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD)
    address - P. O. Box 21923, Safat 13080, Kuwait
    telephone - [965] 4844500
    FAX - [965] 4815750, 4815760, 4815770
    established - 16 May 1968
    aim - to promote economic and social development
    members - (21 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt (suspended from 1979 to 1988), Iraq (suspended 1993), Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia (suspended 1993), Sudan (suspended 1993), Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization




    Arab League (AL)
    note - also known as League of Arab States (LAS)
    address - Midan Attahrir, Tahrir Square, P. O. Box 11642, Cairo, Egypt
    telephone - [20] (2) 750 511
    FAX - [20] (2) 740 331
    established - 22 March 1945
    aim - to promote economic, social, political, and military cooperation
    members - (21 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization




    Arab Maghreb Union (AMU)
    address - 27 Avenue Okba Agdal, Rabat, Morocco
    telephone - [212] (7) 77 26 82, 77 26 76, 77 26 68
    FAX - [212] (7) 77 26 93
    established - 17 February 1989
    aim - to promote cooperation and integration among the Arab states of northern Africa
    members - (5) Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia




    Arab Monetary Fund (AMF)
    address - P. O. Box 2818, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
    telephone - [971] (2) 215000, 328500
    FAX - [971] (2) 326454
    established - 27 April 1976
    effective - 2 February 1977
    aim - to promote Arab cooperation, development, and integration in monetary and economic affairs
    members - (20 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization




    Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
    address - APEC Secretariat, 438 Alexandra Road, 14-00 Alexandra Point, 14th Floor 01/04, Singapore 119958, Singapore
    telephone - [65] 276 1880
    FAX - [65] 276 1775
    established - 7 November 1989
    aim - to promote trade and investment in the Pacific basin
    members - (21) Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, NZ, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, US, Vietnam
    observers - (3) Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, South Pacific Forum




    Asian Development Bank (AsDB)
    address - 6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong, 0401 METRO Manila, Philippines
    telephone - [63] (2) 711 3851
    FAX - [63] (2) 741 7961, 631 6816
    established - 19 December 1966
    aim - to promote regional economic cooperation
    regional members - (41) Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam
    nonregional members - (16) Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US




    Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI)
    see Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)




    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
    note - the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) consists of the 9 ASEAN members, 2 observers, 2 consultative partners, and 8 dialogue partners: Australia, Canada, EU, India, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, US
    address - 70 A Jalan Sisingamangaraja, Jakarta 12110, Indonesia
    telephone - [62] (21) 7262991, 7243372
    FAX - [62] (21) 7398234, 7243504
    established - 8 August 1967
    aim - to encourage regional economic, social, and cultural cooperation among the non-Communist countries of Southeast Asia
    members - (10) Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
    observer - (1) Papua New Guinea
    consultative partners - (2) China, Russia




    Australia Group
    established - 1984
    aim - to consult on and coordinate export controls related to chemical and biological weapons
    members - (28) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US; note - may now include only 23 countries
    observer - (1) Singapore




    Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty (ANZUS)
    address - c/o Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Bag 8, Queen Victoria Terrace, Canberra ACT 2600, Australia
    telephone - [61] (6) 261 91 11
    FAX - [61] (6) 261 21 51
    established - 1 September 1951
    effective - 29 April 1952
    aim - to implement a trilateral mutual security agreement, although the US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986; Australia and the US continue to hold annual meetings
    members - (3) Australia, NZ, US




    Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico (BCIE)
    see Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)




    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)
    see Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)




    Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
    address - Centralbahnplatz 2, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (61) 280 80 80
    FAX - [41] (61) 280 91 00, 280 81 00
    established - 20 January 1930
    effective - 17 March 1930
    aim - to promote cooperation among central banks in international financial settlements
    members - (45) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US, Yugoslavia (suspended)




    Banque Africaine de Developpement (BAD)
    see African Development Bank (AfDB)




    Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique (BADEA)
    see Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)




    Banque de Developpement des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale (BDEAC)
    see Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)




    Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD)
    see West African Development Bank (WADB)




    Benelux Economic Union (Benelux)
    note - acronym from Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg
    address - Rue de la Regence 39, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium
    telephone - [32] (2) 519 38 11
    FAX - [32] (2) 513 42 06
    established - 3 February 1958
    effective - 1 November 1960
    aim - to develop closer economic cooperation and integration
    members - (3) Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands




    Big Seven
    note - membership is the same as the Group of 7
    established - NA 1975
    aim - to discuss and coordinate major economic policies
    members - (7) Big Six (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK) plus the US




    Big Six
    note - not to be confused with the Group of 6
    established - NA 1967
    aim - to foster economic cooperation
    members - (6) Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK




    Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone (BSEC)
    address - Istinye Cad Musir Fuad Pasa Yalisi Eski Tersame, Istinye 80860, Istanbul, Turkey
    telephone - [90] (212) 229 6330
    FAX - [90] (212) 229 6336
    established - 25 June 1992
    aim - to enhance regional stability through economic cooperation
    members - (11) Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine
    observers - (7) Austria, Egypt, Israel, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Tunisia




    Caribbean Community and Common Market (Caricom)
    address - Caricom, P. O. Box 10827, Bank of Guyana Building, 3rd floor, Avenue of the Republic, Georgetown, Guyana
    telephone - [592] (2) 69281 through 69289
    FAX - [592] (2) 66091, 67816, 57341
    established - 4 July 1973
    effective - 1 August 1973
    aim - to promote economic integration and development, especially among the less developed countries
    members - (14) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago
    associate members - (3) Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
    observers - (10) Aruba, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Venezuela




    Caribbean Development Bank (CDB)
    address - P. O. Box 408, Wildey, St. Michael, Barbados
    telephone - [1] (246) 431 1600
    FAX - [1] (246) 426 7269
    established - 18 October 1969
    effective - 26 January 1970
    aim - to promote economic development and cooperation
    regional members - (20) Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Colombia, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Venezuela
    nonregional members - (6) Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, UK




    Cartagena Group
    see Group of 11




    Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)
    note - acronym from Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale
    address - BP 969, Bangui, Central African Republic
    telephone - [236] 61 09 22, 61 45 77
    FAX - [236] 61 21 35
    established - 8 December 1964
    effective - 1 January 1966
    aim - to promote the establishment of a Central African Common Market
    members - (6) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon




    Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)
    note - acronym from Banque de Developpement des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale
    address - BDEAC, Place du Gouvernement, BP 1177, Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo
    telephone - [242] 81 18 85
    FAX - [242] 81 18 80
    established - 3 December 1975
    aim - to provide loans for economic development
    members - (9) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Germany, Kuwait




    Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)
    note - acronym from Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico
    address - Apartado Postal 772, Tegucigalpa DC, Honduras
    telephone - [504] 228 2243
    FAX - [504] 228 2185
    established - 13 December 1960 signature of Articles of Agreement; 31 May 1961 began operations
    aim - to promote economic integration and development
    members - (5) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua
    nonregional members - (4) Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, Taiwan




    Central American Common Market (CACM)
    address - c/o SIECA, Apartado Postal 1237, 4a Avenida 10-25, Zona 14, Guatemala 01901, Guatemala
    telephone - [502] (2) 682151, 682152, 682153, 682154
    FAX - [502] (2) 681071
    established - 13 December 1960, collapsed in 1969, reinstated in 1991
    aim - to promote establishment of a Central American Common Market
    members - (5) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua; note - Panama, although not a member, pursues full regional cooperation




    Central European Initiative (CEI)
    note - evolved from the Quadrilateral Initiative and the Hexagonal Group
    address - European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, One Exchange Square, London EC2A 2EH, UK
    telephone - [44] (171) 338 6152
    FAX - [44] (171) 338 7472
    established - 11 November 1989 as the Quadrilateral Initiative, 27 July 1991 became the Hexagonal Initiative, NA 1992 present name adopted
    aim - to form an economic and political cooperation group for the region between the Adriatic and the Baltic Seas
    members - (16) Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine




    centrally planned economies
    a term applied mainly to the traditionally communist states that looked to the former USSR for leadership; most are now evolving toward more democratic and market-oriented systems; also known formerly as the Second World or as the communist countries; through the 1980s, this group included Albania, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary, North Korea, Laos, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam, Yugoslavia




    Colombo Plan (CP)
    address - Colombo Plan Bureau, P. O. Box 596, 12 Melbourne Avenue, Colombo 4, Sri Lanka
    telephone - [94] (1) 581813, 581853, 581754
    FAX - [94] (1) 581754
    established - NA May 1950 proposal was adopted; 1 July 1951 commenced full operations
    aim - to promote economic and social development in Asia and the Pacific
    members - (24) Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, US




    Commission for Social Development
    note - formerly Social Commission
    address - General Assembly and ECOSOC Affairs Division, Department of General Assembly Affairs and Conference Services, United Nations, Room S-2950, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 5935
    established - 21 June 1946 as the Social Commission, renamed 29 July 1966
    aim - to deal, as part of the Economic and Social Council, with social development programs of UN
    members - (46) selected on a rotating basis from all regions




    Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
    address - Center for International Crime Prevention, Vienna International Center, P. O. Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, Austria
    telephone - [43] (1) 21345, extension 4272
    FAX - [43] (1) 21345 5898, 21345 5841
    established - 6 February 1992
    aim - to provide guidance, as part of the Economic and Social Council, on crime prevention and criminal justice
    members - (40) selected on a rotating basis from all regions




    Commission on Human Rights
    address - c/o Secretariat, United Nations Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights, United Nations Office at Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 917 90 00, 907 92 60
    FAX - [41] (22) 917 90 11
    established - 18 February 1946
    aim - to assist, as part of the Economic and Social Council, with human rights programs of UN
    members - (53) selected on a rotating basis from all regions




    Commission on Narcotic Drugs
    address - c/o United Nations Drug Control Programme, Treaty Implementation and Legal Affairs Branch, P. O. Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, Austria
    telephone - [43] (1) 213450
    FAX - [43] (1) 21345-5885
    established - 16 February 1946
    aim - Economic and Social Council organization dealing with illicit drugs programs of UN
    members - (53) selected on a rotating basis from all regions with emphasis on producing and processing countries




    Commission on Population and Development
    address - Division for Policy and Coordination and ECOSOC Affairs, Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, United Nations, Room 2963, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 5935
    established - 10 August 1948
    aim - to deal with population matters of importance to the UN, as part of Economic and Social Council
    members - (47) selected on a rotating basis from all regions




    Commission on Science and Technology for Development
    address - General Assembly and ECOSOC Affairs Division, Department of General Assembly Affairs and Conference Services, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 5935
    established - 20 July 1992
    aim - to promote international cooperation, as part of the Economic and Social Council, in the field of science and technology
    members - (33) selected on a rotating basis from all regions




    Commission on Sustainable Development
    address - Division for Sustainable Development, United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, Room DC2-2274, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 0902
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 4260
    established - 12 February 1993
    aim - to monitor, as part of the Economic and Social Council, implementation of agreements reached at the UN Conference on Environment and Development
    members - (53) selected on a rotating basis from all regions




    Commission on the Status of Women
    address - Division for the Advancement of Women, Department for Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, Room DC2-1200, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 3177
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 3463
    established - 21 June 1946
    aim - to deal, as part of the Economic and Social Council, with women's rights goals of UN
    members - (45) selected on a rotating basis from all regions




    Commonwealth (C)
    note - also known as Commonwealth of Nations
    address - c/o Commonwealth Secretariat, Marlborough House, Pall Mall, London SW1Y 5HX, UK
    telephone - [44] (171) 839 3411, 747 6535
    FAX - [44] (171) 930 0827, 839 9081
    established - 31 December 1931
    aim - to foster multinational cooperation and assistance, as a voluntary association that evolved from the British Empire
    members - (53) Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica, Fiji, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, NZ, Nigeria, Pakistan (suspended), Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, UK, Vanuatu, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    special members - (1) Tuvalu




    Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
    address - Kirov Street 17, 220000 Minsk, Belarus
    telephone - [375] 223434, 223517
    FAX - [375] 261944, 272339
    established - 8 December 1991
    effective - 21 December 1991
    aim - to coordinate intercommonwealth relations and to provide a mechanism for the orderly dissolution of the USSR
    members - (12) Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan




    Commonwealth of Nations
    see Commonwealth (C)




    Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest (CEAO)
    see West African Economic Community (CEAO)




    Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale (CEEAC)
    see Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC)




    Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs (CEPGL)
    see Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)




    communist countries
    traditionally the Marxist-Leninist states with authoritarian governments and command economies based on the Soviet model; most of the original and the successor states are no longer communist; see centrally planned economies




    Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)
    see Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)




    Conseil Europeenne pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN)
    see European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)




    Contadora Group (CG)
    established 5 January 1983 (on the Panamanian island of Contadora) to reduce tensions and conflicts in Central America; members included Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela; has evolved into the Rio Group (RG)




    Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
    see Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)




    Coordinating Committee on Export Controls (COCOM)
    established in 1949 to control the export of strategic products and technical data from member countries to proscribed destinations; members were Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, UK, US; abolished 31 March 1994; COCOM members are working on a new organization with expanded membership which focuses on nonproliferation export controls as opposed to East-West control of advanced technology




    Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA)
    note - also known as CMEA or Comecon
    established 25 January 1949 to promote the development of socialist economies and abolished 1 January 1991; members included Afghanistan (observer), Albania (had not participated since 1961 break with USSR), Angola (observer), Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia (observer), GDR, Hungary, Laos (observer), Mongolia, Mozambique (observer), Nicaragua (observer), Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam, Yemen (observer), Yugoslavia (associate)




    Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU)
    address - International Trade Center Building, 12th Floor, 1191 Cornish El Nile, P. O. Box 1, Mohamad Fareed, Cairo, Egypt
    telephone - [20] (2) 754252, 755321
    FAX - [20] (2) 754090
    established - 3 June 1957
    effective - 30 May 1964
    aim - to promote economic integration among Arab nations
    members - (11 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization




    Council of Europe (CE)
    address - Palais de l'Europe, F-67075 Strasbourg CEDEX, France
    telephone - [33] (3) 88 41 20 00
    FAX - [33] (3) 88 41 27 81, 88 41 27 82
    established - 5 May 1949
    effective - 3 August 1949
    aim - to promote increased unity and quality of life in Europe
    members - (41) Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK
    guests - (3) Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina
    observers - (4) Canada, Israel, Japan, US




    Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS)
    address - Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Box 16121, S-10323 Stockholm, Sweden
    telephone - [46] (8) 405 1000
    FAX - [46] (8) 723 1176
    established - 6 March 1992
    aim - to promote cooperation among the Baltic Sea states in the areas of aid to new democratic institutions, economic development, humanitarian aid, energy and the environment, cultural programs and education, and transportation and communication
    members - (12) Denmark, Estonia, EU, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden




    Council of the Entente (Entente)
    address - 01 BP 3734, Angle Avenue Verdier-Rue de Tessieres, Abidjan 01, Cote d'Ivoire
    telephone - [225] 33 10 01, 33 28 35, 32 10 74
    FAX - [225] 33 11 49
    established - 29 May 1959
    aim - to promote economic, social, and political coordination
    members - (5) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Niger, Togo




    countries in transition
    a new term used by the International Monetary FUND (IMF) for the middle group in its hierarchy of advanced economies, countries in transition, and developing countries; recently published IMF statistics include the following 28 countries in transition: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan; note - this group is identical to the group traditionally referred to as the "former USSR/Eastern Europe" except for the addition of Mongolia




    Customs Cooperation Council (CCC)
    note - also known as World Customs Organization (WCO)
    address - Rue du Marche 30, B-1210 Brussels, Belgium
    telephone - [32] (2) 209 92 11
    FAX - [32] (2) 109 92 92
    established - 15 December 1950
    aim - to promote international cooperation in customs matters
    members - (145) Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe




    developed countries (DCs)
    the top group in the hierarchy of developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and less developed countries (LDCs); includes the market-oriented economies of the mainly democratic nations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Bermuda, Israel, South Africa, and the European ministates; also known as the First World, high-income countries, the North, industrial countries; generally have a per capita GDP in excess of $10,000 although four OECD countries and South Africa have figures well under $10,000 and two of the excluded OPEC countries have figures of more than $10,000; the 35 DCs are: Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, Canada, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US; note - similar to the new International Monetary Fund (IMF) term "advanced economies" which adds Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan but drops Malta, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey




    developing countries
    a new term used by the International Monetary FUND (IMF) for the bottom group in its hierarchy of advanced economies, countries in transition, and developing countries; recently published IMF statistics include the following 126 developing countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, UAE, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe; note - this category would presumably also cover the following 46 other countries that are traditionally included in the more comprehensive group of "less developed countries": American Samoa, Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cayman Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Cook Islands, Cuba, Eritrea, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gaza Strip, Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guernsey, Jersey, North Korea, Macau, Isle of Man, Martinique, Mayotte, Montserrat, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Saint Helena, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tokelau, Tonga, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Virgin Islands, Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara




    East African Development Bank (EADB)
    address - 4 Nile Avenue, P. O. Box 7128, Kampala, Uganda
    telephone - [256] (41) 230021, 230825
    FAX - [256] (41) 259763
    established - 6 June 1967
    effective - 1 December 1967
    aim - to promote economic development
    members - (3) Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda




    Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
    address - United Nations Building, Rajadamnern Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand
    telephone - [66] (2) 2881234
    FAX - [66] (2) 2881000
    established - 28 March 1947 as Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE)
    aim - to carry out the commitment of the Economic and Social Council of the UN to promote economic development
    members - (51) Afghanistan, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, China, Fiji, France, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Russia, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand, Tonga, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, UK, US, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam
    associate members - (9) American Samoa, Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Guam, Hong Kong, Macau, New Caledonia, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands




    Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)
    address - P. O. Box 11-8575, Riad El-Sohl Square, Beirut, Lebanon
    telephone - [961] (10) 981301
    FAX - [961] (10) 981510
    established - 9 August 1973 as Economic Commission for Western Asia (ECWA)
    aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission for the UN's Economic and Social Council
    members - (12 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization




    Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
    address - United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 758 2718
    established - 26 June 1945
    effective - 24 October 1945
    aim - to coordinate the economic and social work of the UN; includes five regional commissions (see Economic Commission for Africa, Economic Commission for Europe, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia) and 10 functional commissions (see Commission for Social Development, Commission on Human Rights, Commission on Narcotic Drugs, Commission on the Status of Women, Commission on Population and Development, Statistical Commission, Commission on Science and Technology for Development, Commission on Sustainable Development, and Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice)
    members - (54) selected on a rotating basis from all regions




    Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)
    address - P. O. Box 3001-3005, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    telephone - [251] (1) 51 72 00
    FAX - [251] (1) 51 44 16
    established - 29 April 1958
    aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission of the UN's Economic and Social Council
    members - (53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    associate members - (2) France, UK




    Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE)
    see Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)




    Economic Commission for Europe (ECE)
    address - Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 917 4444
    FAX - [41] (22) 917 0505
    established - 28 March 1947
    aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission of the UN's Economic and Social Council
    members - (55) Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia




    Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA)
    see Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)




    Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)
    address - Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 179 D, Santiago, Chile
    telephone - [56] (2) 2102000
    FAX - [56] (2) 2080252, 2081946
    established - 25 February 1948 as Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA)
    aim - to promote economic development as a regional commission of the UN's Economic and Social Council
    members - (41) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Italy, Jamaica, Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Spain, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela
    associate members - (7) Anguilla, Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands




    Economic Commission for Western Asia (ECWA)
    see Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)




    Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC)
    note - acronym from Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale
    address - CEEAC, BP 2112, Libreville, Gabon
    telephone - [241] 73 35 47, 73 35 48, 73 36 77
    established - 18 October 1983 treaty adopted
    aim - to promote regional economic cooperation and establish a Central African Common Market
    members - (11) Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe




    Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)
    note - acronym from Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs
    address - IRAZ-CEPGL, BP 91, Gitega, Burundi
    established - 20 September 1976
    aim - to promote regional economic cooperation and integration
    members - (3) Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda




    Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
    address - 6 King George V Road, PMB 12745, Lagos, Nigeria
    telephone - [234] (1) 636839, 636841, 636064, 630398
    FAX - [234] (1) 636822
    established - 28 May 1975
    aim - to promote regional economic cooperation
    members - (16) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo




    Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)
    address - No. 1 Goulbou Alley, Kamraniyeh, P. O. Box 14155-6176, Teheran, Iran Islamic Republic
    telephone - [98] (21) 2831731, 2831733
    FAX - [98] (21) 2831732
    established - 27-29 January 1985
    aim - to promote regional cooperation in trade, transportation, communications, tourism, cultural affairs, and economic development
    members - (10) Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
    associate member - (1) "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"




    Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)
    note - began as the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC); an extension of NATO
    address - c/o NATO, B-1110 Brussels, Belgium
    telephone - [32] (2) 728 41 11
    FAX - [32] (2) 728 45 79
    established - 8 November 1991
    effective - 20 December 1991
    aim - to discuss cooperation on mutual political and security issues
    members - (44) Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan




    European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
    address - EBRD Headquarters, One Exchange Square, London EC2A 2EH, UK
    telephone - [44] (171) 338 6000
    FAX - [44] (171) 338 6100
    established - 8-9 January 1990 (proposals made); 15 April 1991 (bank inaugurated)
    aim - to facilitate the transition of seven centrally planned economies in Europe (Bulgaria, former Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, former USSR, and former Yugoslavia) to market economies by committing 60% of its loans to privatization
    members - (60) Albania, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, EU, European Investment Bank (EIB), Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan; note - includes all 25 members of the OECD; also includes the EU as a single entity




    European Community (or European Communities, EC)
    was established 8 April 1965 to integrate the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the European Coal and Steel Community (ESC), the European Economic Community (EEC or Common Market), and to establish a completely integrated common market and an eventual federation of Europe; merged into the European Union (EU) on 7 February 1992; member states at the time of merger were Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK




    European Free Trade Association (EFTA)
    address - 9-11 Rue de Varembe, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 749 11 11
    FAX - [41] (22) 733 92 91
    established - 4 January 1960
    effective - 3 May 1960
    aim - to promote expansion of free trade
    members - (4) Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland




    European Investment Bank (EIB)
    address - Boulevard Konrad Adenauer 100, L-2950 Luxembourg, Luxembourg
    telephone - [352] 4379 3122
    FAX - [352] 4379 3188, 4379 3189
    established - 25 March 1957
    effective - 1 January 1958
    aim - to promote economic development of the EU and its predecessors, the EEC and the EC
    members - (15) Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK




    European Monetary Union (EMU)
    note - an integral part of the European Union; also known as the European Economic and Monetary Union
    address - c/o European Commission, Rue de la Loi 200, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium
    telephone - [32] (2) 299 11 11
    proposed - 1-2 December 1969 at summit conference of heads of government
    signed - 7 February 1992 Maastrict Treaty
    aim - to promote a single market by creating a single currency, the euro; time table - 2 May 1998: European exchange rates fixed for 1 January 1999; 1 January 1999: all banks and stock exchanges begin using euros; 1 January 2002: the euro goes into circulation; 1 July 2002 local currencies no longer accepted
    members - (11) Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain; note - Denmark, Sweden, and UK decided not to join, and Greece did not meet all the criteria to take part




    European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
    note - acronym retained from the predecessor organization Conseil Europeenne pour la Recherche Nucleaire
    address - CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 767 4101, 767 2141
    FAX - [41] (22) 785 0247
    established - 1 July 1953
    effective - 29 September 1954
    aim - to foster nuclear research for peaceful purposes only
    members - (20) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK
    observers - (7) EU, Israel, Japan, Russia, Turkey, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), US




    European Space Agency (ESA)
    address - ESA Headquarters, 8-10 Rue Mario Nikis, F-75738 Paris CEDEX 15, France
    telephone - [33] (1) 53 69 76 54
    FAX - [33] (1) 53 69 75 60
    established - 31 May 1975
    aim - to promote peaceful cooperation in space research and technology
    members - (14) Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK
    cooperating state - (1) Canada




    European Union (EU)
    note - evolved from the European Community (EC)
    address - c/o European Commission, Rue de la Loi 200, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium
    telephone - [32] (2) 299 11 11
    FAX - [32] (2) 295 01 38 through 295 01 40
    established - 7 February 1992
    effective - 1 November 1993
    aim - to coordinate policy among the 15 members in three fields: economics, building on the European Economic Community's (EEC) efforts to establish a common market and eventually a common currency to be called the 'euro', which will supersede the EU's accounting unit, the ECU; defense, within the concept of a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP); and justice and home affairs, including immigration, drugs, terrorism, and improved living and working conditions
    members - (15) Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK
    membership applicants - (13) Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey




    First World
    another term for countries with advanced, industrialized economies; this term is fading from use; see developed countries (DCs)




    Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
    address - Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, I-00100 Rome, Italy
    telephone - [39] (6) 57051
    FAX - [39] (6) 5705 3152
    established - 16 October 1945
    aim - to raise living standards and increase availability of agricultural products, as a UN specialized agency
    members - (176) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe




    former Soviet Union (FSU)
    a collective term often used to identify as a group the successor nations to the Soviet Union or USSR; this group of 15 countries consists of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan




    former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE)
    the middle group in the hierarchy of developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and less developed countries (LDCs); these countries are in political and economic transition and may well be grouped differently in the near future; this group of 27 countries consists of Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan; this group is identical to the IMF group "countries in transition" except for the IMF's inclusion of Mongolia




    Four Dragons
    the four small Asian less developed countries (LDCs) that have experienced unusually rapid economic growth; also known as the Four Tigers; this group consists of Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan; these countries are included in the IMF's "advanced economies" group




    Four Tigers
    another term for the Four Dragons; see Four Dragons




    Franc Zone (FZ)
    note - also known as Conference des Ministres des Finances des Pays de la Zone Franc
    address - c/o Banque de France, Service de la Zone Franc, 39 Rue des Croix des Petits Champs, F-75001 Paris, France
    telephone - [33] (1) 42 92 42 92
    FAX - [33] (1) 42 96 04 23
    established - NA 1964
    aim - to form a monetary union among countries whose currencies are linked to the French franc
    members - (16) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo; note - France includes metropolitan France, the four overseas departments of France (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion), the two territorial collectivities of France (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon), and the three overseas territories of France (French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna)




    Front Line States (FLS)
    established to achieve black majority rule in South Africa; has since gone out of existence; members included Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe




    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
    was established 30 October 1947 to promote the expansion of international trade on a nondiscriminatory basis; subsumed by the World Trade Organization (WTrO) on 1 January 1995; members at the time were Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe




    Group of 2 (G-2)
    informal term that came into use about 1986; to facilitate bilateral economic cooperation between the two most powerful economic giants Japan, US




    Group of 3 (G-3)
    address - c/o Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Grupo de los Tres, Caracas, Venezuela
    established - NA September 1990
    aim - mechanism for policy coordination
    members - (3) Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela




    Group of 5 (G-5)
    established - 22 September 1985
    aim - to coordinate the economic policies of five major noncommunist economic powers
    members - (5) France, Germany, Japan, UK, US




    Group of 6 (G-6)
    note - also known as Groupe des Six Sur le Desarmement; not to be confused with the Big Six
    established - 22 May 1984
    aim - to achieve nuclear disarmament
    members - (6) Argentina, Greece, India, Mexico, Sweden, Tanzania




    Group of 7 (G-7)
    note - membership is the same as the Big Seven
    established - 22 September 1985
    aim - to facilitate economic cooperation among the seven major noncommunist economic powers
    members - (7) Group of 5 (France, Germany, Japan, UK, US) plus Canada and Italy




    Group of 8 (G-8)
    established - NA October 1975
    aim - to facilitate economic cooperation among the developed countries (DCs) that participated in the Conference on International Economic Cooperation (CIEC), held in several sessions between NA December 1975 and 3 June 1977
    members - (9) Canada, EU (as one member), France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, UK, US




    Group of 9 (G-9)
    established - NA
    aim - to discuss matters of mutual interest on an informal basis
    members - (9) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Romania, Sweden, Yugoslavia




    Group of 10 (G-10)
    note - also known as the Paris Club; includes the wealthiest members of the IMF who provide most of the money to be loaned and act as the informal steering committee; name persists in spite of the addition of Switzerland on NA April 1984
    address - c/o IMF Office in Europe, 64-66 Avenue d'Iena, F-75116 Paris, France
    telephone - [33] (1) 40 69 30 80
    FAX - [33] (1) 47 23 40 89
    established - NA October 1962
    aim - to coordinate credit policy
    members - (11) Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US
    nonstate participants - (4) BIS, EU, IMF, OECD




    Group of 11 (G-11)
    note - also known as the Cartagena Group
    established - 21-22 June 1984, in Cartagena, Colombia
    aim - to provide a forum for largest debtor nations in Latin America
    members - (11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela




    Group of 15 (G-15)
    note - byproduct of the Nonaligned Movement
    address - Technical Support Facility, Ch du Champ d'Ancier 17, Case Postale 326, CH-1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 798 42 10
    FAX - [41] (22) 798 38 49
    established - September 1989
    aim - to promote economic cooperation among developing nations; to act as the main political organ for the Nonaligned Movement
    members - (15) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, Senegal, Venezuela, former Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe




    Group of 19 (G-19)
    established in NA October 1975 to represent the interests of the less developed countries (LDCs) that participated in the Conference on International Economic Cooperation (CIEC) held in several sessions between NA December 1975 and 3 June 1977; members included Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zambia




    Group of 24 (G-24)
    address - c/o European Commission, DGIA General Matters and G-24 Coordination Unit, Rue de la Loi 200, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium
    telephone - [32] (2) 299 02 28
    FAX - [32] (2) 296 59 59
    established - 1 August 1989
    aim - to promote the interests of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America within the IMF
    members - (24) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Iran, Lebanon, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Syria, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Yugoslavia




    Group of 30 (G-30)
    address - 1990 M Street NW, Suite 450, Washington, DC 20036, US
    telephone - [1] (202) 331 2472
    FAX - [1] (202) 785 9423
    established - NA 1978
    aim - to discuss and propose solutions to the world's economic problems
    members - (30) informal group of 30 leading international bankers, economists, financial experts, and business leaders organized by Johannes Witteveen (former managing director of the IMF)




    Group of 33 (G-33)
    established in NA 1987 to promote solutions to international economic problems; members included the leading economists from 13 countries




    Group of 77 (G-77)
    address - Office of the Chairman, United Nations, Room S-3959, P. O. Box 20, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 3816, 963 0192, 963 4777
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 3515, 963 1753
    established - 15 June 1964 was set up; NA October 1967 first ministerial meeting
    aim - to promote economic cooperation among developing countries; name persists in spite of increased membership
    members - (131 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, UAE, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization




    Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
    note - also known as the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
    address - P. O. Box 7153, Riyadh 11462, Saudi Arabia
    telephone - [966] (1) 482 7777, extension 1238
    FAX - [966] (1) 482 9109
    established - 25 May 1981
    aim - to promote regional cooperation in economic, social, political, and military affairs
    members - (6) Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE




    Hexagonal Group
    see Central European Initiative (CEI)




    high-income countries
    another term for the industrialized countries with high per capita GDPs; see developed countries (DCs)




    Indian Ocean Commission (InOC)
    address - Q4 Avenue Sir Guy Forget, BP7, Quatre Bornes, Mauritius
    telephone - [230] 425 9564, 425 1652
    FAX - [230] 425 1209
    established - 21 December 1982
    aim - to organize and promote regional cooperation in all sectors, especially economic
    members - (5) Comoros, France (for Reunion), Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles




    industrial countries
    another term for the developed countries; see developed countries (DCs)




    Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)
    note - also known as Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)
    address - 1300 New York Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20577, US
    telephone - [1] (202) 623 1000
    FAX - [1] (202) 623 3096
    established - 8 April 1959
    effective - 30 December 1959
    aim - to promote economic and social development in Latin America
    members - (46) Argentina, Austria, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela




    Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
    note - formerly known as Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD)
    address - P. O. Box 2653, Djibouti, Djibouti
    telephone - [253] 354050
    FAX - [253] 356994, 356284
    established - 15-16 January 1986 as the Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development
    revitalized - 21 March 1996 as the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development
    aim - to promote a social, economic, and scientific community among its members
    members - (7) Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda




    Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD)
    see Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD)




    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
    address - Wagramerstrasse 5, P. O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria
    telephone - [43] (1) 26000
    FAX - [43] (1) 26007
    established - 26 October 1956
    effective - 29 July 1957
    aim - to promote peaceful uses of atomic energy
    members - (129) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe




    International Bank for Economic Cooperation (IBEC)
    was established on 22 October 1963 to promote economic cooperation and development; members were Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam; now it is a Russian bank with a new charter




    International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
    note - also known as the World Bank
    address - 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, US
    telephone - [1] (202) 477 1234
    FAX - [1] (202) 477 6391
    established - 22 July 1944
    effective - 27 December 1945
    aim - to provide economic development loans; a UN specialized agency
    members - (181) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe




    International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
    address - 38 Cours Albert 1st, F-75008 Paris, France
    telephone - [33] (1) 49 53 28 28
    FAX - [33] (1) 49 53 29 42
    established - NA 1919
    aim - to promote free trade and private enterprise and to represent business interests at national and international levels
    members - (62 national councils) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia




    International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
    address - ICAO, 999 University Street, Montreal H3C 5H7, Canada
    telephone - [1] (514) 954 8219
    FAX - [1] (514) 954 6077
    established - 7 December 1944
    effective - 4 April 1947
    aim - to promote international cooperation in civil aviation; a UN specialized agency
    members - (185) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Palau, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe




    International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
    address - ICRC, 19 Avenue de la Paix, CH-1202 Geneva, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 734 60 01
    FAX - [41] (22) 733 20 57
    established - 17 February 1863
    aim - to provide humanitarian aid in wartime
    members - (25 individuals) all Swiss nationals




    International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)
    address - International Trade Union House, Boulevard Emile Jacqmain 155, B-1210 Brussels, Belgium
    telephone - [32] (2) 224 02 11
    FAX - [32] (2) 201 58 15, 203 07 56
    established - NA December 1949
    aim - to promote the trade union movement
    members - (206 affiliated organizations in the following 141 countries) Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Basque Country, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Curacao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, Finland, France, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Holy See, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, New Caledonia, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe




    International Court of Justice (ICJ)
    note - also known as the World Court
    address - Peace Palace, NL-2517 KJ The Hague, Netherlands
    telephone - [31] (70) 302 23 23
    FAX - [31] (70) 364 99 28
    established - 3 February 1946 superseded Permanent Court of International Justice
    aim - primary judicial organ of the UN
    members - (15 judges) elected by the UN General Assembly and Security Council to represent all principal legal systems




    International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol)
    address - BP 6041, F-69411 Lyon CEDEX 06, France
    telephone - [33] (4) 72 44 70 00
    FAX - [33] (4) 72 44 71 63
    established - NA September 1923 set up as the International Criminal Police Commission; 13 June 1956 constitution modified and present name adopted
    aim - to promote international cooperation among police authorities in fighting crime
    members - (177) Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    subbureaus - (14) American Samoa, Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Gibraltar, Guam, Hong Kong, Macau, Montserrat, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, Turks and Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands




    International Development Association (IDA)
    address - 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, US
    telephone - [1] (202) 477 1234
    FAX - [1] (202) 477 6391
    established - 26 January 1960
    effective - 24 September 1960
    aim - UN specialized agency and IBRD affiliate that provides economic loans for low income countries
    members - (160)
    Part I - (26 developed countries) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UAE, UK, US
    Part II - (134 less developed countries) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe




    International Energy Agency (IEA)
    address - 9 Rue de la Federation, F-75739 Paris CEDEX 15, France
    telephone - [33] (1) 40 57 65 00
    FAX - [33] (1) 40 57 65 09
    established - 15 November 1974
    aim - to promote cooperation on energy matters, especially emergency oil sharing and relations between oil consumers and oil producers; established by the OECD
    members - (24) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US
    observers - (16) Commission of the European Communities, Czech Republic, Iceland, South Korea, Mexico, Poland




    International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS)
    note - formerly known as League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS)
    address - Chemin des Crets 17, CP 372, Petit-Saconnex, CH-1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 730 4222
    FAX - [41] (22) 733 0395
    established - 5 May 1919
    aim - to organize, coordinate, and direct international relief actions; to promote humanitarian activities; to represent and encourage the development of National Societies; to bring help to victims of armed conflicts, refugees, and displaced people; to reduce the vulnerability of people through development programs
    members - (175) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    associate members - (4) Comoros, Cyprus, Gabon, Tuvalu




    International Finance Corporation (IFC)
    address - 2121 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20433, US
    telephone - [1] (202) 477 1234
    FAX - [1] (202) 974 4384, 477 6391
    established - 25 May 1955
    effective - 24 July 1956
    aim - to support private enterprise in international economic development; a UN specialized agency and IBRD affiliate
    members - (174) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe




    International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
    address - Via del Serafico 107, I-00142 Rome, Italy
    telephone - [39] (6) 54591
    FAX - [39] (6) 5043463
    established - NA November 1974
    aim - to promote agricultural development; a UN specialized agency
    members - (161)
    Category I - (22 industrialized aid contributors) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US
    Category II - (12 petroleum-exporting aid contributors) Algeria, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela
    Category III - (127 aid recipients) Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, The Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Israel, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uruguay, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe




    International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)
    note - name changed from International Hydrographic Bureau on 22 September 1970
    address - BP 445, 4 Quai Antoine 1st, Monaco MC 98011, CEDEX, Monaco
    telephone - [33] (93) 01 81 00
    FAX - [33] (93) 10 81 40
    established - NA June 1919
    effective - NA June 1921
    aim - to train hydrographic surveyors and nautical cartographers to achieve standardization in nautical charts and electronic chart displays; to provide advice on nautical cartography and hydrography; to develop the sciences in the field of hydrography and techniques used for descriptive oceanography
    members - (66) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Monaco, Mozambique Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Sweden, Syria, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela
    membership pending - (7) Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Jamaica, Kuwait, Mauritania, Morocco, Qatar




    International Investment Bank (IIB)
    established on 7 July 1970; to promote economic development; members were Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam; now it is a Russian bank with a new charter




    International Labor Organization (ILO)
    address - International Labor Office, 4 route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 799 61 11
    FAX - [41] (22) 798 86 85
    established - 28 June 1919 set up as part of Treaty of Versailles; 11 April 1919 became operative; 14 December 1946 affiliated with the UN
    aim - to deal with world labor issues; a UN specialized agency
    members - (173) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe




    International Maritime Organization (IMO)
    note - name changed from Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) on 22 May 1982
    address - 4 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7SR, UK
    telephone - [44] (171) 735 7611
    FAX - [44] (171) 587 3210
    established - 6 March 1948 set up as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization
    effective - 17 March 1958
    aim - to deal with international maritime affairs; a UN specialized agency
    members - (157) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen
    associate members - (2) Hong Kong, Macau




    International Maritime Satellite Organization (Inmarsat)
    see International Mobile Satellite Organization (Inmarsat)




    International Mobile Satellite Organization (Inmarsat)
    note - formerly International Maritime Satellite Organization
    address - 99 City Road, London EC1Y 1AX, UK
    telephone - [44] (171) 728 1000, 728 1100
    FAX - [44] (171) 728 1044, 728 1100
    established - 3 September 1976
    effective - 16 July 1979
    aim - to provide worldwide communications for commercial, distress, and safety applications, at sea, in the air, and on land
    members - (86) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Malaysia, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mozambique, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Vietnam




    International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    address - 700 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20431, US
    telephone - [1] (202) 623 7000
    FAX - [1] (202) 623 4661, 623 7491, 623 4662
    established - 22 July 1944
    effective - 27 December 1945
    aim - to promote world monetary stability and economic development; a UN specialized agency
    members - (182) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe




    International Olympic Committee (IOC)
    address - Chateau de Vidy, CH-1007 Lausanne, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (21) 621 61 11
    FAX - [41] (21) 621 62 16, 621 63 54
    established - 23 June 1894
    aim - to promote the Olympic ideals and administer the Olympic games: 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia; 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, United States; 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece
    National Olympic Committees - (199 and the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, American Samoa, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guam, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Yemen, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization




    International Organization for Migration (IOM)
    note - established as Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for the Movement of Migrants from Europe; renamed Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) on 15 November 1952; renamed Intergovernmental Committee for Migration (ICM) in November 1980; current name adopted 14 November 1989
    address - 17 route des Morillons, CP 71, CH-1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 717 91 11
    FAX - [41] (22) 798 61 50
    established - 5 December 1951
    aim - to facilitate orderly international emigration and immigration
    members - (69) Albania, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mali, Morocco, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Senegal, Slovakia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Uganda, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen, Zambia
    observers - (47) Afghanistan, Algeria, Belarus, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Cape Verde, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cuba, Estonia, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guinea, Holy See, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Madagascar, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Namibia, NZ, Papua New Guinea, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, Vietnam, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe




    International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
    address - CP 56, 1 Rue de Varembe, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 749 01 11
    FAX - [41] (22) 733 34 30
    established - NA February 1947
    aim - to promote the development of international standards with a view to facilitating international exchange of goods and services and to developing cooperation in the sphere of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity
    members - (88 national standards organizations) Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Libya, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia and Montenegro, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zimbabwe
    correspondent members - (35) Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Barbados, Bolivia, Brunei, Cote d'Ivoire, El Salvador, Estonia, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Madagascar, Malawi, Malta, Moldova, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Qatar, Seychelles, Sudan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE
    subscriber members - (9) Benin, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Grenada, Guyana, Namibia, Saint Lucia




    International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRM)
    address - International Conference of the Red Cross, 19 Avenue de la Paix, CH-1202 Geneva, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 734 60 01
    FAX - [41] (22) 733 20 57
    established - NA 1928
    aim - to promote worldwide humanitarian aid through the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in wartime, and International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS; formerly League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies or LORCS) in peacetime
    National Societies - (175 countries) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe




    International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
    address - Place des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 730 6039
    FAX - [41] (22) 733 7256, 730 5939
    established - 17 May 1865 set up as the International Telegraph Union; 9 December 1932 adopted present name
    effective - 1 January 1934
    affiliated with the UN - 15 November 1947
    aim - to deal with world telecommunications issues; a UN specialized agency
    members - (188) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe




    International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Intelsat)
    address - Intelsat, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008-3098, US
    telephone - [1] (202) 944 7500
    FAX - [1] (202) 944 7890
    established - 20 August 1964 set up as the Telecommunications Satellite Consortium; 12 February 1973 adopted present name
    aim - to develop and operate a global commercial telecommunications satellite system
    members - (143) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    nonsignatory users - (42) Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Belarus, Belize, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cook Islands, Cuba, Djibouti, Eritrea, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Kiribati, North Korea, Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Moldova, Nauru, Niue, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Suriname, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Ukraine, Vanuatu




    Islamic Development Bank (IDB)
    address - P. O. Box 5925, Jeddah 21432, Saudi Arabia
    telephone - [966] (2) 6361400
    FAX - [966] (2) 6366871
    established - 15 December 1973 by declaration of intent
    effective - 12 August 1974
    aim - to promote Islamic economic aid and social development
    members - (51 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization




    Latin American Economic System (LAES)
    note - also known as Sistema Economico Latinoamericana (SELA)
    address - SELA, Avenida Francisco de Miranda, Torre Europa, Piso 4, Chacaito, Apartado de Correos 17035, Caracas 1010-A, Venezuela
    telephone - [58] (2) 905 5111
    FAX - [58] (2) 951 6953, 951 7246
    established - 17 October 1975
    aim - to promote economic and social development through regional cooperation
    members - (28) Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela
    observers - (21) Andean Promotion Corporation, China, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, EEC, Guatemala, Honduras, IADB, Inter-American Institute for Agricultural Cooperation, Italy, Nicaragua, OAS, Panama, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, UN Development Program, UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean




    Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)
    note - also known as Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI)
    address - Calle Cebollati 1461, Casilla de Correo 577, 11000 Montevideo, Uruguay
    telephone - [598] (2) 400 11 21, 409 59 15
    FAX - [598] (2) 409 06 49
    established - 12 August 1980
    effective - 18 March 1981
    aim - to promote freer regional trade
    members - (12) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela
    observers - (21) China, Commission of the European Communities, Corporacion Andina de Fomento, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Inter-American Development Bank, Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture, Italy, Latin America Economic System, Nicaragua, Organization of American States, Panama, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, United Nations Development Program, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean




    League of Arab States (LAS)
    see Arab League (AL)




    League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS)
    see International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS)




    least developed countries (LLDCs)

    that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) initially identified by the UN General Assembly in 1971 as having no significant economic growth, per capita GDPs normally less than $1,000, and low literacy rates; also known as the undeveloped countries; the 42 LLDCs are: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kiribati, Laos, Lesotho, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Yemen




    less developed countries (LDCs)
    the bottom group in the hierarchy of developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and less developed countries (LDCs); mainly countries and dependent areas with low levels of output, living standards, and technology; per capita GDPs are generally below $5,000 and often less than $1,500; however, the group also includes a number of countries with high per capita incomes, areas of advanced technology, and rapid rates of growth; includes the advanced developing countries, developing countries, Four Dragons (Four Tigers), least developed countries (LLDCs), low-income countries, middle-income countries, newly industrializing economies (NIEs), the South, Third World, underdeveloped countries, undeveloped countries; the 172 LDCs are: Afghanistan, Algeria, American Samoa, Angola, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Gaza Strip, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guernsey, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jersey, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Isle of Man, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Oman, Palau, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Reunion, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, UAE, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe; note - similar to the new International Monetary Fund (IMF) term "developing countries" which adds Malta, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey but omits in its recently published statistics American Samoa, Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cayman Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Cook Islands, Cuba, Eritrea, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gaza Strip, Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guernsey, Jersey, North Korea, Macau, Isle of Man, Martinique, Mayotte, Montserrat, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Saint Helena, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tokelau, Tonga, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Virgin Islands, Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara




    London Suppliers Group
    see Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)




    low-income countries
    another term for those less developed countries with below-average per capita GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs)




    Mercado Comun del Cono Sur (Mercosur)
    see Southern Cone Common Market




    middle-income countries
    another term for those less developed countries with above-average per capita GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs)




    Near Abroad
    Russian term for the 14 non-Russian successor states of the USSR, in which 25 million ethnic Russians live and in which Moscow has expressed a strong national security interest; the 14 countries are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan




    newly industrializing countries (NICs)
    former term for the newly industrializing economies; see newly industrializing economies (NIEs)




    newly industrializing economies (NIEs)
    that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) that has experienced particularly rapid industrialization of their economies; formerly known as the newly industrializing countries (NICs); also known as advanced developing countries; usually includes the Four Dragons (Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan), and Brazil




    Nonaligned Movement (NAM)
    address - Permanent Representative of the Republic of South Africa to the United Nations, 333 East 38th Street, 9th floor, New York, NY 10016, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 213 5583
    FAX - [1] (212) 692 2498
    established - 1-6 September 1961
    aim - to establish political and military cooperation apart from the traditional East or West blocs
    members - (113 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization
    observers - (16) Antigua and Barbuda, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Croatia, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Paraguay, Ukraine, Uruguay
    guests - (28) Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US




    Nordic Council (NC)
    address - Store Strandstraede 18, PB 3043, DK-1021 Kobenhavn K, Denmark
    telephone - [45] 33 96 04 00
    FAX - [45] 33 11 18 70
    established - 16 March 1952
    effective - 12 February 1953
    aim - to promote regional economic, cultural, and environmental cooperation
    members - (5) Denmark (including Faroe Islands and Greenland), Finland (including Aland Islands), Iceland, Norway, Sweden
    observers - (3) the Sami (Lapp) local parliaments of Finland, Norway, and Sweden




    Nordic Investment Bank (NIB)
    address - Fabianinkatu 34, P. O. Box 249, FIN-00171 Helsinki, Finland
    telephone - [358] (0) 18001
    FAX - [358] (0) 1800210
    established - 4 December 1975
    effective - 1 June 1976
    aim - to promote economic cooperation and development
    members - (5) Denmark (including Faroe Islands and Greenland), Finland (including Aland Islands), Iceland, Norway, Sweden




    North
    a popular term for the rich industrialized countries generally located in the northern portion of the Northern Hemisphere; the counterpart of the South; see developed countries (DCs)




    North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC)
    see Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)




    North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
    address - B-1110 Brussels, Belgium
    telephone - [32] (2) 707 4111
    FAX - [32] (2) 707 4579
    established - 4 April 1949
    aim - to promote mutual defense and cooperation
    members - (19) Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, UK, US




    Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)
    note - also known as OECD Nuclear Energy Agency
    address - AEN/NEA, Le Seine St. Germain, 12 Boulevard des Iles, F-92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux, France
    telephone - [33] (1) 45 24 10 10
    FAX - [33] (1) 45 24 11 10
    established - 1 February 1958
    aim - to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; associated with OECD
    members - (27) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US




    Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
    note - also known as the London Suppliers Group or the London Group
    address - c/o Permanent Mission of Japan to the International Organizations in Vienna, Andromeda Tower, 23rd floor, Donau City Strasse 6, A-1220 Vienna, Austria
    telephone - [43] (1) 260 6300
    FAX - [43] (1) 263 6749
    established - NA 1974
    effective - NA 1975
    aim - to establish guidelines for exports of nuclear materials, processing equipment for uranium enrichment, and technical information to countries of proliferation concern and regions of conflict and instability
    members - (35) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Latvia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, UK, US
    observer - (1) European Commission (a policy-planning body for the EU)




    Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la America Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL)
    see Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL)




    Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
    address - 2 Rue Andre Pascal, F-75775 Paris CEDEX 16, France
    telephone - [33] (1) 45 24 82 00
    FAX - [33] (1) 45 24 85 00, 45 24 81 76, 45 24 18 15
    established - 14 December 1960
    effective - 30 September 1961
    aim - to promote economic cooperation and development
    members - (29) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US
    special member - (1) EU




    Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
    note - formerly the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) established 3 July 1975
    address - Karntner Ring 5-7, A-1010 Vienna, Austria
    telephone - [43] (1) 514 36-190
    FAX - [43] (1) 514 36-96
    established - 1 January 1995
    aim - to foster the implementation of human rights, fundamental freedoms, democracy, and the rule of law; to act as an instrument of early warning, conflict prevention and crisis management; and to serve as a framework for conventional arms control and confidence building measures
    members - (55) Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia (suspended)
    partners for cooperation - (8) Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Japan, Jordan, South Korea, Morocco, Tunisia




    Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
    address - Johan de Wittlaan 32, NL-2517 JR The Hague, Netherlands
    telephone - [31] (70) 416 33 00
    FAX - [31] (70) 360 09 44
    established - 29 April 1997
    aim - to enforce the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction; to provide a forum for consultation and cooperation among the signatories of the Convention
    members - (169) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe




    Organization of African Unity (OAU)
    address - P. O. Box 3243, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    telephone - [251] (1) 517700
    FAX - [251] (1) 512622, 517844
    established - 25 May 1963
    aim - to promote unity and cooperation among African states
    members - (54) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco (temporarily suspended), Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe




    Organization of American States (OAS)
    address - corner of 17th Street and Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006, US
    telephone - [1] (202) 458 3000
    FAX - [1] (202) 458 3967
    established - 14 April 1890 as the International Union of American Republics; 30 April 1948 adopted present charter
    effective - 13 December 1951
    aim - to promote regional peace and security as well as economic and social development
    members - (35) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba (excluded from formal participation since 1962), Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, US, Uruguay, Venezuela
    observers - (45) Algeria, Angola, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, EU, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Latvia, Lebanon, Morocco, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, Yemen




    Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC)
    address - P. O. Box 20501, Safat 13066, Kuwait
    telephone - [965] 4844500
    FAX - [965] 4815747
    established - 9 January 1968
    aim - to promote cooperation in the petroleum industry
    members - (10) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE




    Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)
    address - OECS, P. O. Box 179, Morne Fortune, Castries, Saint Lucia
    telephone - [1] (758) 45 22537, 45 22538
    FAX - [1] (758) 45 31628
    established - 18 June 1981
    effective - 4 July 1981
    aim - to promote political, economic, and defense cooperation
    members - (7) Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines associate members - (2) Anguilla, British Virgin Islands




    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
    address - Obere Donaustrasse 93, A-1020 Vienna, Austria
    telephone - [43] (1) 21 11 20
    FAX - [43] (1) 216 43 20
    established - 14 September 1960
    aim - to coordinate petroleum policies
    members - (11) Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela




    Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)
    address - 6 km Makkah Al-Mukarramah Road, P. O. Box 178, Jeddah 21411, Saudi Arabia
    telephone - [966] (2) 680-0800
    FAX - [966] (2) 687-6568
    established - 22-25 September 1969
    aim - to promote Islamic solidarity in economic, social, cultural, and political affairs
    members - (52 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Tajikistan, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization
    observers - (4) Bosnia and Herzegovina, Central African Republic, Moro National Liberation Front of the Philippines, "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"




    Pacific Community
    note - formerly known as the South Pacific Commission (SPC)
    address - BP D5, 98848 Noumea CEDEX, New Caledonia
    telephone - [687] 26 20 00
    FAX - [687] 26 38 18
    established - 6 February 1947
    effective - 29 July 1948
    aim - to promote regional cooperation in economic and social matters
    members - (26) American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, France, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, NZ, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn Islands, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, US, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna




    Paris Club
    see Group of 10




    Partnership for Peace (PFP)
    address - NATO Office of Information and Press, B-1110 Brussels, Belgium
    telephone - [32] (2) 728 44 15
    FAX - [32] (2) 728 45 79
    established - 10-11 January 1994
    aim - to expand and intensify political and military cooperation throughout Europe, increase stability, diminish threats to peace, and build relationships by promoting the spirit of practical cooperation and commitment to democratic principles that underpin NATO; program under the auspices of NATO
    members - (27) Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan




    Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)
    address - Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, NL-2517 KJ The Hague, Netherlands
    telephone - [31] (70) 302 42 42
    FAX - [31] (70) 302 41 67
    established - 29 July 1899
    aim - to facilitate the settlement of international disputes
    members - (86) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zaire, Zimbabwe




    Population Commission
    see Commission on Population and Development




    Rio Group (RG)
    note - formerly known as Grupo de los Ocho, established in December 1986
    address - Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Edificio AYFRA, Piso 10, Pdte Franco y Ayolas, Asuncion, Paraguay
    telephone - [595] (21) 448409, 493872
    FAX - [595] (21) 450911, 493910
    established - NA 1988
    aim - to consult on regional Latin American issues
    members - (12) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela




    Second World
    another term for the traditionally Marxist-Leninist states of the USSR and Eastern Europe, with authoritarian governments and command economies based on the Soviet model; the term is fading from use; see centrally planned economies




    Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC)
    see Pacific Community




    Sistema Economico Latinoamericana (SELA)
    see Latin American Economic System (LAES)




    Social Commission
    see Commission for Social Development




    socialist countries

    in general, countries in which the government owns and plans the use of the major factors of production; note - the term is sometimes used incorrectly as a synonym for communist countries




    South
    a popular term for the poorer, less industrialized countries generally located south of the developed countries; the counterpart of the North; see less developed countries (LDCs)




    South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
    address - P. O. Box 4222, Kathmandu, Nepal
    telephone - [977] (1) 221785, 226350, 221792, 228029
    FAX - [977] (1) 227033, 223991
    established - 8 December 1985
    aim - to promote economic, social, and cultural cooperation
    members - (7) Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka




    South Pacific Commission (SPC)
    see Pacific Community (SPC)




    South Pacific Forum (SPF)
    address - c/o Forum Secretariat, Ratu Sukuna Road, Private Mail Bag, Suva, Fiji
    telephone - [679] 312 600, 303 106
    FAX - [679] 301 102, 305 573
    established - 5 August 1971
    aim - to promote regional cooperation in political matters
    members - (16) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu




    South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement (Sparteca)
    address - c/o forum Secretariat, Ratu Sukuna Road GPO Box 856, Suva, Fiji
    telephone - [679] 312 600, 303 106
    FAX - [679] 302 204
    established - NA 1981
    aim - to redress unequal trade relationships of Australia and New Zealand with small island economies in the Pacific region
    members - (16) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu




    Southern African Customs Union (SACU)
    address - Director of Customs and Excise, Ministry of Finance, Private Bag 13295, Windhoek, Namibia
    established - 11 December 1969
    aim - to promote free trade and cooperation in customs matters
    members - (5) Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland




    Southern African Development Community (SADC)
    note - evolved from the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC)
    address - Private Bag 0095, Gaborone, Botswana
    telephone - [267] (31) 351863, 351864, 351865
    FAX - [267] (31) 372848
    established - 17 August 1992
    aim - to promote regional economic development and integration
    members - (14) Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe




    Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) or Southern Common Market
    note - also known as Mercado Comun del Cono Sur (Mercosur)
    address - Rincon 575 Piso 12, 11000 Montevideo, Uruguay
    telephone - [598] (2) 9164590
    FAX - [598] (2) 9164591
    established - 26 March 1991
    aim - to increase regional economic cooperation
    members - (4) Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay
    associate member - (2) Bolivia, Chile




    Statistical Commission
    address - Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, DC-2 Building, Room 2963, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 9851
    established - 21 June 1946
    aim - to deal with development and standardization of national statistics of interest to the UN, as part of the Economic and Social Council organization
    members - (24) selected on a rotating basis from all regions




    Third World
    another term for the less developed countries; the term is obsolescent; see less developed countries (LDCs)




    underdeveloped countries

    refers to those less developed countries with the potential for above-average economic growth; see less developed countries (LDCs)




    undeveloped countries

    refers to those extremely poor less developed countries (LDCs) with little prospect for economic growth; see least developed countries (LLDCs)




    Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale (UDEAC)
    see Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)




    United Nations (UN)
    address - United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879
    established - 26 June 1945
    effective - 24 October 1945
    aim - to maintain international peace and security and to promote cooperation involving economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems
    members - (187 excluding Yugoslavia) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe; note - all UN members are represented in the General Assembly; Tuvalu will become a member in 2000
    observers - (2 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Holy See, Switzerland, Palestine Liberation Organization




    United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III)
    successor to original UNAVEM and UNAVEM II; established 20 December 1988; renewed for third time 8 February 1995; aim was to assist the parties in restoring peace and achieving national reconciliation in Angola on the basis of the Peace Accords, the Lusaka Protocol, and relevant Security Council resolutions; established by the UN Security Council; members Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Egypt, Fiji, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Jordan, Mongolia, Mali, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Portugal, Sweden, Tanzania, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe; disbanded 30 June 1997




    United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)
    established 5 October 1993 to support and provide safe conditions for displaced persons and human rights monitors, and to assist in training a new national police force; established by the UN Security Council; members were Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Fiji, Germany, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Jordan, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Senegal, Switzerland, Tunisia, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe; terminated 8 March 1996




    United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
    note - acronym retained from the predecessor organization UN International Children's Emergency Fund
    address - UNICEF House, Three United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 326 7000
    FAX - [1] (212) 888 7465, 888 7454
    established - 11 December 1946
    aim - to help establish child health and welfare services
    members - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions




    United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH)
    address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Office for Special Political Affairs, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879
    established - 28 November 1997
    aim - to support the professionalization of the Haitian National Police; established by UN Security Council
    members - (11) Argentina, Benin, Canada, France, India, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Tunisia, US




    United Nations Civilian Police Support Group in Croatia
    established 19 December 1997 to monitor the Croatian police with respect to the return of displaced persons; members were Argentina, Austria, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Lithuania, Nepal, Nigeria, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Tunisia, Ukraine, US; disbanded 15 October 1998




    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
    address - UNCTAD, Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 917 12 34, 907 12 34
    FAX - [41] (22) 907 00 57, 907 00 43
    established - 30 December 1964
    aim - to promote international trade
    members - (188) all UN members plus Holy See, Switzerland, Tonga




    United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia (UNCRO)
    established 31 March 1995 to separate Croatian and Krajina Serb forces; to monitor demilitarization of the Prevlaka Peninsula; to maintain a presence on Croatia's international borders; to monitor and report the crossing of military personnel, equipment, supplies and weapons; to facilitate delivery of humanitarian assistance; to aid refugees and displaced persons; to protect ethnic minorities; and to clear mines; established by the UN Security Council; members were Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Lithuania, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Senegal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US; disbanded January 1996




    United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
    address - One United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 906 5788, 906 5000
    FAX - [1] (212) 906 5365
    established - 22 November 1965
    aim - to provide technical assistance to stimulate economic and social development
    members - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions




    United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)
    address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, United Nations, Room S-3260E, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879
    established - 31 May 1974
    aim - to observe the 1973 Arab-Israeli cease-fire; established by the UN Security Council
    members - (5) Austria, Canada, Japan, Poland, Slovakia




    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
    address - 7 place de Fontenoy, F-75352 Paris 07SP, France
    telephone - [33] (1) 45 68 10 00
    FAX - [33] (1) 45 67 16 90
    established - 16 November 1945
    effective - 4 November 1946
    aim - to promote cooperation in education, science, and culture
    members - (186) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe
    associate members - (4) Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Macau, Netherlands Antilles




    United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)
    address - P. O. Box 30552, Nairobi, Kenya
    telephone - [254] (2) 230800, 520600, 621234, 623292
    FAX - [254] (2) 226890, 623927, 623692
    established - 15 December 1972
    aim - to promote international cooperation on all environmental matters
    members - (58) selected on a rotating basis from all regions




    United Nations General Assembly
    address - see United Nations
    established - 26 June 1945
    effective - 24 October 1945
    aim - to function as the primary deliberative organ of the UN
    members - (185) all UN members are represented in the General Assembly




    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
    address - UNHCR Headquarters, Case Postale 2500, Depot, CH-1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 739 81 11
    FAX - [41] (22) 731 95 46
    established - 3 December 1949
    effective - 1 January 1951
    aim - to ensure the humanitarian treatment of refugees and find permanent solutions to refugee problems
    members - (53) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, India, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Lesotho, Madagascar, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Venezuela




    United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
    address - Vienna International Center, P. O. Box 300, A-1400 Vienna, Austria
    telephone - [43] (1) 211 310
    FAX - [43] (1) 23 21 56
    established - 17 November 1966
    effective - 1 January 1967
    aim - UN specialized agency that promotes industrial development especially among the members
    members - (168) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe




    United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)
    address - Palais des Nations, Bureau 1070, CH-1211, Geneva 10, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 798-58-50, 798-84-00
    FAX - [41] (22) 733-13-83
    established - 11 December 1963 adoption of the resolution establishing the Institute
    effective - 24 March 1965
    aim - to help the UN become more effective through training and research
    members (Board of Trustees) - (19) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Cameroon, Chile, China, Egypt, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, South Africa, Switzerland, Thailand; note - the UN Secretary General can appoint up to 30 members




    United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)
    address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879
    established - 10 June 1999
    aim - to promote the establishment of substantial autonomy and self-government in Kosovo; to perform basic civilian administrative functions; to support the reconstruction of key infrastructure and humanitarian and disaster relief
    members - (49) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Malawi, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine UK, US, Zambia, Zimbabwe




    United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)
    address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879
    established - 19 March 1978
    aim - to confirm the withdrawal of Israeli forces, and assist in reestablishing Lebanese authority in southern Lebanon; established by the UN Security Council
    members - (9) Fiji, Finland, France, Ghana, India, Ireland, Italy, Nepal, Poland




    United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)
    address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879
    established - 9 April 1991
    aim - to observe and monitor the demilitarized zone established between Iraq and Kuwait; established by the UN Security Council
    members - (33) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, China, Denmark, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela




    United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)
    address - P. O. Box 68, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
    telephone - [92] (51) 564 298
    FAX - [92] (51) 567 897, 565 861
    established - 24 January 1949
    aim - to observe the 1949 India-Pakistan cease-fire; established by the UN Security Council
    members - (8) Belgium, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy, South Korea, Sweden, Uruguay




    United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)
    address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879
    established - 29 April 1991
    aim - to supervise the cease-fire and conduct a referendum in Western Sahara; established by the UN Security Council
    members - (29) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, China, Egypt, El Salvador, France, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Honduras, India, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, South Korea, Malaysia, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Togo, US, Uruguay, Venezuela




    United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH)
    address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 758 2718
    established - 21 December 1995
    aim - to establish an International Police Task Force (IPTF) to implement the Dayton Peace Agreement in Bosnia and Herzegovina
    members - (44) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Lithuania, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US




    United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)
    established 23 September 1993; aim was to assist in implementing the agreement to transfer power back into the civilian government; established by the UN Security Council; became the United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH) 28 June 1996 with the aim to assist in the professionalization of the Haitian National Police; members were Algeria, Canada, France, India, Mali, Pakistan, Togo, US; disbanded 31 July 1997




    United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA)
    established NA April 1998 to provide security in the capital as the government undertakes the necessary reforms to provide its own security; to provide training to civilian police; members were Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon Canada, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, France, Gabon, Mali, Portugal, Senegal, Togo, Tunisia; was disbanded 15 February 2000




    United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL)
    address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963-1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 758-2718
    established - 22 October 1999
    aim - to cooperate with the Government of Sierra Leone and the other parties to the Peace Agreement in the implementation of the agreement; to monitor the military and security situation in Sierra Leone; to monitor the disarmament and demobilization of combatants and members of the Civil Defense Forces (CFD); to assist in monitoring respect for international humanitarian law
    members - (30) Bangladesh, Bolivia, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, France, The Gambia, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Namibia, Nepal, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Thailand, Tanzania, UK, Uruguay, Zambia




    United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP)
    address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 758 2718
    established - 1 February 1996
    aim - to monitor the demilitarization of the Prevlaka peninsula
    members - (24) Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine




    United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT)
    address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 758 2718
    established - 16 December 1994
    aim - to monitor and investigate violations of the cease-fire of 17 September 1994 between Tajikistan and the Tajik opposition and to assist in the political negotiation process; established by the UN Security Council
    members - (13) Austria, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Nepal, Nigeria, Poland, Ukraine, Uruguay




    United Nations Monitoring and Verification Commission (UNMOVIC)
    note - formerly known as United Nations Special Commission for the Elimination of Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction (UNSCOM)
    address - c/o United Nations, Room S-3120H, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 3018
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 3922
    established - NA December 1999
    aim - to identify, account for, and eliminate Iraq's weapons of mass destruction and the capacity to produce them
    members - (22) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sri Lanka, Sweden, UK, US, Venezuela




    United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA)
    established 1 July 1997 to assist in implementation of peace agreement; oversee normalization of state administration throughout National territory; established by UN Security Council; members were Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Egypt, India, Jordan, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe; terminated 26 February 1999




    United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL)
    established 20 May 1991 to verify cease-fire arrangements and to monitor the maintenance of public order pending the organization of a new National Civil Police; established by the UN Security Council; members were Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, France, Guyana, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Spain, Sweden, Venezuela; disbanded April 1995




    United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)
    address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879
    established - 24 August 1993
    aim - to verify compliance with the cease-fire agreement, to monitor weapons exclusion zone, and to supervise CIS peacekeeping force for Abkhazia; established by the UN Security Council
    members - (22) Albania, Austria, Bangladesh, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Indonesia, Jordan, South Korea, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay




    United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL)
    established 22 September 1993 to assist in the implementation of the peace agreement; established by the UN Security Council; members were Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Pakistan; disbanded September 1997




    United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR)
    established 1993 for six months to monitor the Uganda/Rwanda border to verify that no military assistance reaches Rwanda across the border; established by the UN Security Council; members were Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Hungary, Netherlands, Senegal, Slovakia, Zimbabwe; subsumed by UNAMIR




    United Nations Operation in Mozambique (UNOMOZ)
    established 16 December 1992 to supervise the cease-fire; established by the UN Security Council; members were Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde, China, Czech Republic, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, US, Uruguay, Zambia; shut down operations 31 January 1995




    United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II)
    established 24 April 1992 to facilitate an immediate cessation of hostilities, to maintain a cease-fire in order to promote a political settlement, and to provide urgent humanitarian assistance; established by the UN Security Council; members were Australia, Bangladesh, Botswana, Canada, Egypt, India, Ireland, Malaysia, Nepal, NZ, Nigeria, Pakistan, Romania, Zimbabwe; UN peacekeepers left Somalia on 1 March 1995; some UN personnel remain in Somalia engaged in humanitarian work




    United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC)
    address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879
    established - 30 November 1999
    aim - to establish contacts with the signatories to the cease-fire agreement and to plan for the observation of the cease-fire and disengagement of forces
    members - (24) Algeria, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Canada, Egypt, France, Ghana, India, Italy, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nepal, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, UK, Tanzania, Uruguay, Zambia




    United Nations Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)
    address - Chief of Mission, P. O. Box 1642, Nicosia, Cyprus
    telephone - [357] (2) 359 700
    FAX - [357] (2) 359 753
    established - 4 March 1964
    aim - to serve as a peacekeeping force between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in Cyprus; established by the UN Security Council
    members - (10) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Netherlands, Slovenia, UK




    United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
    note - acronym retained from predecessor organization UN Fund for Population Activities
    address - 220 East 42nd Street, 19th Floor, Room DN-1901, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 297 5000
    FAX - [1] (212) 557 6416
    established - NA July 1967
    aim - to assist both developed and developing countries to deal with their population problems
    members - (34) selected on a rotating basis from all regions




    United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP)
    established 31 March 1995; to monitor border activity in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; members were Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, US; mandate ended 25 March 1999




    United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR)
    established 28 February 1992; to create conditions for peace and security required for the negotiation of an overall settlement of the "Yugoslav" crisis; established by the UN Security Council; members were Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, UK, US; disbanded December 1995; replaced by the Implementation Force (IFOR), which has been replaced by the Stabilization Force (SFOR)




    United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)
    address - P. O. Box 700, Vienna International Center, A-1400 Vienna, Austria
    established - 8 December 1949
    aim - to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees
    members - (10) Belgium, Egypt, France, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, UK, US




    United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)
    address - Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 798 84 00, 798 58 50
    FAX - [41] (22) 740 07 91
    established - NA 1963
    aim - to conduct research into the problems of economic development during different phases of economic growth
    members - no country members, but a Board of Directors consisting of a chairman appointed by the UN secretary general and 10 individual members




    United Nations Secretariat
    address - see United Nations
    established - 26 June 1945
    effective - 24 October 1945
    aim - to serve as the primary administrative organ of the UN; a Secretary General is appointed for a five-year term by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council
    members - the UN Secretary General and staff




    United Nations Security Council
    address - c/o United Nations, Room S-3520A, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 758 2718
    established - 26 June 1945
    effective - 24 October 1945
    aim - to maintain international peace and security
    permanent members - (5) China, France, Russia, UK, US
    nonpermanent members - (10) elected for two-year terms by the UN General Assembly; Argentina (1999-2000), Bangladesh (2000-01), Canada (1999-2000), Jamaica (2000-01), Malaysia (1999-2000), Mali (2000-01), Namibia (1999-2000), Netherlands (1999-2000), Tunisia (2000-01), Ukraine (2000-01)




    United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET)
    address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US
    telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234
    FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879
    established - 25 October 1999
    aim - to provide security throughout the territory of East Timor; to establish an effective administration; to ensure the coordination and delivery of humanitarian assistance; to support capacity-building for self-government
    members - (27) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Ghana, Ireland, Jordan, Malaysia, Mozambique, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Senegal, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, UK, US, Uruguay, Zimbabwe




    United Nations Transitional Administration in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja, and Western Sirmium (UNTAES)
    established 12 November 1995; aim to facilitate and supervise the Basic Agreement between the government of the Republic of Croatia and the local Serbian community that will lead to a peaceful integration of that region into the national state of Croatia; members were Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, NZ, Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Russian, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, UK, US; disbanded 15 January 1998; a UN Civilian Police Support Group was established in December 1997 as follow-on mission to UNTAES; the support group will continue to monitor the Croatian police in the Danube region, particularly in connection with the return of displaced people




    United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)
    established by the UN Security Council on 28 February 1992 to contribute to the restoration and maintenance of peace and to the holding of free elections; disbanded sometime after the UN-supervised election in May 1993; members were Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brunei, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Egypt, Fiji, France, Germany, Ghana, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Tunisia, UK, US, Uruguay




    United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)
    address - Government House, P. O. Box 490, Jerusalem 91004, Israel
    telephone - [972] (2) 673 4223
    FAX - [972] (2) 673 5282, 673 4223 extension 400
    established - NA June 1948
    aim - to supervise the 1948 Arab-Israeli cease-fire; currently supports timely deployment of reinforcements to other peacekeeping operations in the region as needed; initially established by the UN Security Council
    members - (22) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, US




    United Nations Trusteeship Council
    established on 26 June 1945, effective on 24 October 1945, to supervise the administration of the 11 UN trust territories; members were China, France, Russia, UK, US; it formally suspended operations 1 November 1995 after the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau) became the Republic of Palau, a constitutional government in free association with the US; the Trusteeship Council was not dissolved




    United Nations University (UNU)
    address - 53-70 Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan
    telephone - [81] (3) 3499 2811
    FAX - [81] (3) 3499 2828
    established - 3 December 1973
    aim - to conduct research in development, welfare, and human survival and to train scholars
    members - (38 associated institutes in 32 countries) Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, India, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Philippines, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Venezuela




    United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)
    established on 20 January 1997; to verify fulfillment of cease-fire provisions; established by UN Security Council; members were Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Columbia, Ecuador, Germany, Italy, Norway, Russia, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, US, Uruguay, Venezuela; mandate terminated in May 1997




    Universal Postal Union (UPU)
    address - Bureau International de l'UPU, Weltpoststrasse 4, CH-3000 Berne 15, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (31) 350 31 11
    FAX - [41] (31) 350 31 10
    established - 9 October 1874, affiliated with the UN 15 November 1947
    effective - 1 July 1948
    aim - to promote international postal cooperation; a UN specialized agency
    members - (189) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Overseas Territories of the UK, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe




    Warsaw Pact (WP)
    established 14 May 1955 to promote mutual defense; members met 1 July 1991 to dissolve the alliance; member states at the time of dissolution were Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the USSR; earlier members included GDR and Albania




    West African Development Bank (WADB)
    note - also known as Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD); is a financial institution of WAEMU
    address - 68 Avenue de la Liberation, BP 1172, Lome, Togo
    telephone - [228] 21 59 06, 21 42 44, 21 01 13
    FAX - [228] 21 52 67, 21 72 69
    established - 14 November 1973
    aim - to promote regional economic development and integration
    regional members - (8) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo
    international/nonregional members - (5) African Development Bank, Belgium, European Investment Bank, France, Germany




    West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)
    note - also known as Union Economique et Monetaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA)
    address - Commission de l'UEMOA, 01 BP 543, Ouadgadougou, Burkina Faso
    telephone - [226] 31 88 73 through 76
    FAX - [226] 31 88 72
    established - 1 August 1994
    aim - to increase competitiveness of members' economic markets; to create a common market
    members - (8) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo




    West African Economic Community (CEAO)
    note - acronym from Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest
    established on 3 June 1972 to promote regional economic development; its members were Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal; it was disbanded in 1994




    Western European Union (WEU)
    address - Rue de la Regence 4, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium
    telephone - [32] (2) 500 44 11
    FAX - [32] (2) 511 32 70
    established - 23 October 1954
    effective - 6 May 1955
    aim - to provide mutual defense and to move toward political unification
    members - (10) Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK
    associate members - (6) Czech Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Norway, Poland, Turkey
    associate partners - (7) Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia
    observers - (5) Austria, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden




    World Bank
    see International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)




    World Bank Group
    includes International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Development Association (IDA), and International Finance Corporation (IFC)




    World Confederation of Labor (WCL)
    address - Rue de Treves 33, B-1040 Brussels, Belgium
    telephone - [32] (2) 230 62 95
    FAX - [32] (2) 230 87 22
    established - 19 June 1920 as the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions (IFCTU), renamed 4 October 1968
    aim - to promote the trade union movement
    members - (99 national organizations) Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bonaire Island, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Curacao, Cyprus, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, French Guiana, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, Montserrat, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe




    World Court
    see International Court of Justice (ICJ)




    World Customs Organization (WCO)
    see Customs Cooperation Council (CCC)




    World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)
    address - Branicka 112, 14701 Prague 4, Czech Republic
    telephone - [42] (2) 44 46 21 40, 44 46 20 85, 44 46 29 61
    FAX - [42] (2) 44 46 13 78
    established - 3 October 1945
    aim - to promote the trade union movement
    members - (125 and the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Guiana, The Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal, New Caledonia, NZ, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Romania, Russia, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization




    World Food Council (WFC)
    established 17 December 1974; to study world food problems and to recommend solutions; ECOSOC organization; there were 36 members selected on a rotating basis from all regions; subsumed by the World Food Program and Food and Agriculture Organization




    World Food Program (WFP)
    address - Via Cesare Giullio Viola, 68/70 Parco de Medici, I-00148 Rome, Italy
    telephone - [39] (6) 522821
    FAX - [39] (6) 59602348, 52282840
    established - 24 November 1961
    aim - to provide food aid in support of economic development or disaster relief; an ECOSOC organization
    members - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions




    World Health Organization (WHO)
    address - CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 791 21 11, 791 32 23
    FAX - [41] (22) 791 07 46
    established - 22 July 1946
    effective - 7 April 1948
    aim - to deal with health matters worldwide; a UN specialized agency
    members - (191) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niue, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe
    associate members - (2) Puerto Rico, Tokelau




    World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
    address - 34 Chemin des Colombettes, Case Postale 18, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 338 9111
    FAX - [41] (22) 733 5428
    established - 14 July 1967
    effective - 26 April 1970
    aim - to furnish protection for literary, artistic, and scientific works; a UN specialized agency
    members - (171) Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe




    World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
    address - Case Postale 2300, 41 Avenue Giuseppe-Motta, CH-1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 730 81 11
    FAX - [41] (22) 734 23 26
    established - 11 October 1947
    effective - 4 April 1951
    aim - to sponsor meteorological cooperation; a UN specialized agency
    members - (185) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, British Caribbean Territories, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe




    World Tourism Organization (WToO)
    address - Calle Capitan Haya 42, 28020 Madrid, Spain
    telephone - [34] (1) 567 81 00
    FAX - [34] (1) 571 37 33
    established - 2 January 1975
    aim - to promote tourism as a means of contributing to economic development, international understanding, and peace
    members - (131) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    associate members - (5) Aruba, Flanders, Macau, Madeira Islands, Netherlands Antilles
    observer - (1) Holy See




    World Trade Organization (WTrO)
    note - succeeded General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT)
    address - Centre William Rappard, 154 Rue de Lausanne, CH-1211 Geneva 21, Switzerland
    telephone - [41] (22) 739 51 11
    FAX - [41] (22) 739 54 58
    established - 15 April 1994
    effective - 1 January 1995
    aim - to provide a means to resolve trade conflicts between members and to carry on negotiations with the goal of further lowering and/or eliminating tariffs and other trade barriers
    members - (136) Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    observers - (6) Azerbaijan, Laos, Somalia, Sudan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
    applicants - (31) Albania, Algeria, Armenia, The Bahamas, Belarus, Cambodia, Cape Verde, China, Comoros, Croatia, Equatorial Guinea, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Nepal, Oman, Russia, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Tonga, Tuvalu, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen, Taiwan; note - some of these countries applied to GATT and are still under consideration for membership in WTrO; the following member of GATT had not become a member of WTrO as of 1 January 1998: Yugoslavia (suspended)




    Zangger Committee (ZC)
    established - early 1970s
    aim - to establish guidelines for the export control provisions of the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty (NPT)
    members - (33) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, UK, US




    Note: The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) ceases to exist. None of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, including Serbia and Montenegro, have been permitted to participate solely on the basis of the membership of the former Yugoslavia in the United Nations General Assembly and Economic and Social Council and their subsidiary bodies and in various United Nations specialized agencies. The United Nations, however, permits the seat and nameplate of the SFRY to remain, permits the SFRY mission to continue to function, and continues to fly the flag of the former Yugoslavia. For a variety of reasons, a number of other organizations have not yet taken action with regard to the membership of the former Yugoslavia. The World Factbook therefore continues to list Yugoslavia under international organizations where the SFRY seat remains or where no action has yet been taken.

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