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Sideliner

Some things are easier to legalize than to legitimate.

  • French writer Sébastien-Roch Nicolas de Chamfort - 1741-1794


    Junk is the ideal product... the ultimate merchandise. No sales talk necessary. The client will crawl through a sewer and beg to buy.

  • U.S. author William Burroughs quoted in 1959.


    The worst drugs are as bad as anybody's told you.

    It is just a dumb trip, which I can't condemn people if they get into it, because one gets into it for one's own personal, social, emotional reasons.

    It is something to be avoided if one can help it.

  • John Lennon quoted in 1971.


    Marijuana is self-punishing. It makes you acutely sensitive, and in this world, what worse punishment could there be?

  • U.S. journalist P. J. O'Rourke quoted in 1989.


    It is an ordinary day for Brian. Like, he died every day, you know.

  • Pete Townshend of the Who on Brian Jones's death.

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    "Wanted: Shopaholic nosey parker with excellent observational skills, a good ear and flexible attitude to part-time work. Anyone can apply. Work available in all areas. Must be prepared to eat free meals, enjoy shopping discounts and visit pubs - and be paid for it."

    Believe it or not, the above job advertisement is not as far fetched as it sounds. If you love shopping, you'll be pleased to hear that it's possible to shop for a living. In fact, it's a multi-million pound industry for market research companies who employ "mystery shoppers" to shop up and down the country - all in the name of customer service and research.

    There are a number of mystery shopping companies who organise whole armies of professional shoppers on behalf of retailers, pubs, restaurants, banks and other service industries. Their mission? To mingle in, look inconspicuous and file a report on anything from customer service to cleanliness in the restrooms.

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  • Recommended: To reduce the likelihood of your children needing teen drug rehab when they grow up, it is recommended that you properly educate them early on about the dangers of drug addiction.

    Drugs

    You must make your own decisions about drugs, but hopefully the information here will help you...

    Education about drugs.

    Educating children about the dangers of drugs is not always easy. What is the right approach? Is it best to be open and up-front about it, or to hope that if you do not mention them then your children will not become involved? There is no right answer as each approach will be different for different people.

    However, the general consensus of opinion is that it is best to be honest about drugs. Be sensible as a parent with regard to the drugs you take yourselves. For example, if you take prescribed sleeping tablets and your children see you take them, then it may be best to explain why you are taking them. Children will follow your example and if they get the impression that it is acceptable to take them, even if they are prescribed ones, then you could be setting a bad example. Drink and smoking are other areas that you need to take care with.

    Where can young people get drugs?

    Most young people start trying drugs in their teenage years. Most of the time they get their drugs from friends, so being aware of the signs of influence could help to avert a potential problem (See also ed-u.com's advice on bullying because sometimes young people can be bullied into taking drugs against their will).

    Legal drugs such as solvents are of course much harder to control. Again, good practice at home goes a long way to reducing the risk of your child experimenting with these substances.

    So how can a parent identify signs of drug taking?

    There is not usually a clear indication that someone is taking drugs, especially if use is infrequent. However, there are some signs that could indicate possible use, but you need to be careful not to assume that this is because of a drugs problem.

    Signs of drug taking could be:

  • Loss of appetite (especially if the child normally eats well);
  • Sleepiness and loss of energy;
  • Changes in mood (this can be due to normal growing up but erratic mood changes could indicate a problem);
  • Loss of interest in activities which the child previously seemed to enjoy. This could include hobbies, a sports activity, their friends, etc.
  • Money and other items going missing. If the young person is buying drugs then they often turn to stealing in order to get the money for them.
  • Smells that you are not familiar with or that are unusual, particularly on clothes and on the young person themselves.
  • Of course, if you find the drugs themselves then this would be a clear indication of potential drug abuse. You must get help as soon as possible.

    Why do young people take drugs in the first place?

    There are lots of reasons why people take drugs. The old saying of "prevention is better than cure" is very appropriate here. If young people can be prevented from taking drugs in the first place then it is considerably easier to deal with.

    Some examples of why young people take drugs are:

    They just thought it would be exciting to do. Certainly, there is often he perception that taking some drugs is a more grown-up activity. Smoking is another area where young people are very impressionable and it is the same with drugs. If you do have cause to talk to the young person about taking drugs then try to give them very good factual reasons why they should not take them, such as it can lead to very serious illness.

    Escapism. Some young people start taking drugs as away of getting away from every day problems. These problems could be being lonely, unhappy, having problems at home, abuse or bullying. It is important to try to make them realise that the drugs are not actually providing a solution. Also, try to deal with the cause of the problem in the first place. If, for example, the young person is being bullied into taking drugs, then try to deal with the bullying which would hopefully remove the root of the problem.

    Experimenting. Some young people will try drugs just to see what they are like. In this case it is important to try to remain supportive, no matter how difficult this may be to do. Sometimes, if you over-react it could make the young person realise that it is a good way of getting attention and could even make the situation worse. You will need to use your own judgement here.

    Parent's Note

    If your child is taking drugs it is highly unlikely that they will be willing to discuss it with you. This does not mean, however, that they do not feel worried about what they are doing and may actually want support. There are lots of reasons why they may be taking drugs and many things they are worried about it such as:
  • Being pressured or bullied into taking them
  • Just wanting to "fit-in" with a group of friends
  • Have started taking one drug and got hooked on another, more dangerous one
  • Not have realised what they were taking
  • Not have realised that they could get hooked
  • Not have realised that there could be unpleasant side-affects
  • Not have realised how much it would cost
  • Getting into trouble to pay for the drugs
  • Being frightened and worried about what is happening to them or a friend
  • Not knowing what to do to get help

    Drugs and the Law.

    Sentences for selling and supplying drugs are very severe. Persons under ten years old cannot be convicted of an offence. However, selling and supplying drugs is against the Misuse of Drugs Act and carries heavy penalties. Persons under seventeen years old are usually dealt with by a juvenile court. Maximum penalties for those persons over eighteen years old are life imprisonment.

    Types of drugs.

    There are many different types of drugs and they can vary in their affects. Below is a list of the main ones but the most important thing is not necessarily to know a lot about drugs, but to be aware of the dangers of them and where help can be sought.

    Main drug types:

  • Cannabis. Cannabis is the most widely used drug and is usually mixed with tobacco and smoked.
  • Solvents. The sniffing (sometimes known as "huffing") of solvents, such as hairspray, cigarette lighter fuel, solvent based glues, petrol, paint thinners, plaster remover liquid and correcting fluid, is not illegal, but is very dangerous. Most young people try this as a form of drug taking after smoking and drinking.
  • Stimulants. This category includes Amphetamine, Crack and Cocaine. Misuse of these drugs can lead to very serious ill health.
  • Ecstasy or MDMA. This drug acts as a stimulant and its affects can last for several hours. It can interfere with normal learning and memory. Some people are more susceptible to ecstasy than others but there have been deaths as a result of its misuse.
  • GHB. GHB is a liquid that is often taken with alcohol. It can also be taken in the form of a powder or in a capsule. It can cause vomiting, drowsiness and some people are known to have seizures.
  • Hallucinogens. The most common hallucinogens are LSD (known as acid) and Liberty Cap mushrooms (known as mushies, shrooms and magic mushrooms). LSD usually takes the form of small squares of blotting paper, which are placed on the tongue to dissolve. There are a number of problems associated with this drug such as triggering undiagnosed psychotic behaviour, confusion and disorientation which could in turn lead to fatal accidents.
  • Heroin. Heroin can be taken by injection, smoking or sniffing and is very addictive. A user of heroin can often function relatively normally but may appear drowsy. Injection with shared needles can be a problem.
  • Tranquillizers and Sedatives. Although most of these drugs are prescribed for short-term use, many people use them long-term and regularly.
  • Anabolic Steroids. It is not illegal to possess these drugs but it is illegal to sell them. Used in legitimate medicine, these drugs are used for building up muscle tissue but can be misused and do have some side affects such as reduced growth.

    Illicit drugs - Country profile: Transnational Issues

    Afghanistan:
    world's largest illicit opium producer, surpassing Burma (potential production in 1999 - 1,670 metric tons; cultivation in 1999 - 51,500 hectares, a 23% increase over 1998); a major source of hashish; increasing number of heroin-processing laboratories being set up in the country; major political factions in the country profit from drug trade

    Albania:
    increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium and cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and rapidly expanding in Europe

    Angola:
    increasingly used as a transshipment point for cocaine and heroin destined for Western Europe and other African states

    Antigua and Barbuda:
    considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as a drug-money-laundering center

    Argentina:
    increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe and the US; increasing use as a money-laundering center; domestic consumption of drugs has skyrocketed

    Armenia:
    illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic consumption; increasingly used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs - mostly opium and hashish - to Western Europe and the US via Iran, Central Asia, and Russia

    Aruba:
    drug-money-laundering center and transit point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe

    Australia:
    Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

    Austria:
    transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe

    Azerbaijan:
    limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; transshipment point for opiates via Iran, Central Asia, and Russia to Western Europe

    Bahamas, The:
    transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for US and Europe; banking industry vulnerable to money laundering

    Bangladesh:
    transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries

    Barbados:
    one of many Caribbean transshipment points for narcotics bound for the US and Europe

    Belarus:
    limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and via Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe

    Belgium:
    source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish, and marijuana entering Western Europe

    Belize:
    transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; minor money-laundering center

    Benin:
    transshipment point for narcotics associated with Nigerian trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for Western Europe and the US

    Bolivia:
    world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Peru and Colombia) with an estimated 21,800 hectares under cultivation in 1999, a 45% decrease in overall cultivation of coca from 1998 levels; intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to the US and other international drug markets; alternative crop program aims to reduce illicit coca cultivation

    Bosnia and Herzegovina:
    minor transit point for marijuana and opiate trafficking routes to Western Europe

    Brazil:
    limited illicit producer of cannabis, minor coca cultivation in the Amazon region, mostly used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for the US and Europe; increasingly used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling

    Bulgaria:
    major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals

    Burma:
    world's second largest producer of illicit opium, after Afghanistan (potential production in 1999 - 1,090 metric tons, down 38% due to drought; cultivation in 1999 - 89,500 hectares, a 31% decline from 1998); surrender of drug warlord KHUN SA's Mong Tai Army in January 1996 was hailed by Rangoon as a major counternarcotics success, but lack of government will and ability to take on major narcotrafficking groups and lack of serious commitment against money laundering continues to hinder the overall antidrug effort; becoming a major source of methamphetamines for regional consumption

    Cambodia:
    transshipment site for Golden Triangle heroin; possible money laundering; narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police; possible small-scale opium, heroin, and amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis for the international market

    Canada:
    illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market

    Cape Verde:
    used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs moving from Latin America and Africa destined for Western Europe

    Cayman Islands:
    vulnerable to drug money laundering and drug transshipment

    Chile:
    a growing transshipment country for cocaine destined for the US and Europe; economic prosperity has made Chile more attractive to traffickers seeking to launder drug profits; imported precursors passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is rising

    China:
    major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem

    Colombia:
    illicit producer of coca, opium poppies, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator (cultivation of coca in 1998 - 101,500 hectares, a 28% increase over 1997); cultivation of opium in 1998 remained steady at 6,600 hectares; potential production of opium in 1997 - 66 metric tons, a 5% increase over 1996; the world's largest processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of cocaine to the US and other international drug markets, and an important supplier of heroin to the US market; active aerial eradication program

    Congo, Democratic Republic of the:
    illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic consumption

    Costa Rica:
    transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South America; illicit production of cannabis on small, scattered plots; domestic cocaine consumption has risen

    Cote d'Ivoire:
    illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local consumption; minor transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin to Europe and occasionally to the US, and for Latin American cocaine destined for Europe

    Croatia:
    transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; a minor transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe

    Cuba:
    territorial waters and air space serve as transshipment zone for cocaine bound for the US and Europe; established the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes in 1999

    Cyprus:
    minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey; some cocaine transits as well

    Czech Republic:
    major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; domestic consumption - especially of locally produced synthetic drugs - on the rise

    Dominica:
    transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; minor cannabis producer; banking industry is vulnerable to money laundering

    Dominican Republic:
    transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe

    Ecuador:
    significant transit country for cocaine and derivatives of coca originating in Colombia and Peru; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; important money-laundering hub; increased activity on frontiers by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents

    Egypt:
    a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian heroin and opium moving to Europe, Africa, and the US; popular transit stop for Nigerian couriers

    El Salvador:
    transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana produced for local consumption; domestic drug abuse on the rise

    Estonia:
    transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia, cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking

    Ethiopia:
    transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (chat) for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia

    France:
    transshipment point for and consumer of South American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin

    French Guiana:
    small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption; minor transshipment point to Europe

    Georgia:
    limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates via Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia

    Germany:
    source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs

    Ghana:
    illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US

    Greece:
    a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; some South American cocaine transits or is consumed in Greece

    Grenada:
    small-scale cannabis cultivation; lesser transshipment point for marijuana and cocaine to US

    Guatemala:
    transit country for cocaine shipments; minor producer of illicit opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; active eradication program in 1996 effectively eliminated the cannabis crop; proximity to Mexico makes Guatemala a major staging area for drugs (cocaine shipments)

    Guyana:
    transshipment point for narcotics from South America - primarily Venezuela - to Europe and the US; producer of cannabis

    Haiti:
    major Caribbean transshipment point for cocaine en route to the US and Europe

    Honduras:
    transshipment point for drugs and narcotics; illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption; corruption is a major problem

    Hong Kong:
    a hub for Southeast Asian heroin trade; transshipment and money-laundering center; increasing indigenous amphetamine abuse

    Hungary:
    major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and transit point for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamines and methamphetamines

    India:
    world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; major transit country for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries; illicit producer of hashish and methaqualone

    Indonesia:
    illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin

    Iran:
    despite substantial interdiction efforts, Iran remains a key transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin to Europe; domestic consumption of narcotics remains a persistent problem and Iranian press reports estimate that there are at least 1.2 million drug users in the country

    Ireland:
    transshipment point for and consumer of hashish from North Africa to the UK and Netherlands and of European-produced synthetic drugs; minor transshipment point for heroin and cocaine destined for Western Europe

    Israel:
    increasingly concerned about cocaine and heroin abuse; drugs arrive in country from Lebanon and increasingly Jordan

    Italy:
    important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market

    Jamaica:
    transshipment point for cocaine from Central and South America to North America and Europe; illicit cultivation of cannabis; government has an active manual cannabis eradication program

    Kazakhstan:
    significant illicit cultivation of cannabis and limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrone); limited government eradication program; cannabis consumed largely in the CIS; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Russia, North America, and Western Europe from Southwest Asia

    Kenya:
    widespread harvesting of small, wild plots of marijuana and qat (chat); transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and, sometimes, North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa

    Kyrgyzstan:
    limited illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Russia and Western Europe from Southwest Asia

    Laos:
    world's third-largest illicit opium producer (estimated cultivation in 1999 - 21,800 hectares, a 16% decrease over 1998; estimated potential production in 1999 - 140 metric tons, about the same as in 1998); potential heroin producer; transshipment point for heroin and methamphetamines produced in Burma; illicit producer of cannabis

    Latvia:
    transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from Central and Southwest Asia to Western Europe and Scandinavia and Latin American cocaine and some synthetics from Western Europe to CIS; limited production of illicit amphetamines, ephedrine, and ecstasy for export

    Lebanon:
    inconsequential producer of hashish; some heroin processing mostly in the Bekaa valley; a Lebanese/Syrian eradication campaign started in the early 1990s has practically eliminated the opium and cannabis crops

    Liberia:
    increasingly a transshipment point for Southeast and Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine for the European and US markets

    Lithuania:
    transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Southwest Asia, Latin America, and Western Europe to Western Europe and Scandinavia

    Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of:
    increasing transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe

    Madagascar:
    illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin

    Malaysia:
    transit point for some illicit drugs going to Western markets; drug trafficking prosecuted vigorously and carries severe penalties

    Malta:
    minor transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Western Europe

    Martinique:
    transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and Europe

    Mauritius:
    minor consumer and transshipment point for heroin from South Asia; small amounts of cannabis produced and consumed locally

    Mexico:
    illicit cultivation of opium poppy (cultivation in 1998 - 5,500 hectares; potential production - 60 metric tons) and cannabis cultivation in 1998 - 4,600 hectares; government eradication efforts have been key in keeping illicit crop levels low; major supplier of heroin and marijuana to the US market; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America; involved in the production and distribution of methamphetamines; upsurge in drug-related violence and official corruption; major drug syndicates growing more powerful

    Moldova:
    limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe and possibly the US

    Morocco:
    illicit producer of hashish; trafficking on the increase for both domestic and international drug markets; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe

    Mozambique:
    Southern African transit hub for South American cocaine probably destined for the European and US markets; producer of hashish and methaqualone

    Nepal:
    illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic and international drug markets; transit point for opiates from Southeast Asia to the West

    Netherlands:
    major European producer of illicit amphetamines and other synthetic drugs; important gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish entering Europe

    Netherlands Antilles:
    money-laundering center; transshipment point for South American drugs bound for the US and Europe

    Nicaragua:
    transshipment point for cocaine destined for the US and transshipment point for arms-for-drugs dealing

    Nigeria:
    facilitates movement of heroin en route from Southeast and Southwest Asia to Western Europe and North America; increasingly a transit route for cocaine from South America intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets

    Pakistan:
    producer of illicit opium and hashish for the international drug trade (poppy cultivation in 1999 - 1,570 hectares, a 48% drop from 1998 because of eradication and alternative development); key transit area for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western markets; narcotics still move from Afghanistan into Balochistan Province

    Panama:
    major cocaine transshipment point and major drug-money-laundering center; no recent signs of coca cultivation; monitoring of financial transactions is improving, yet Panama has failed to prosecute anyone for money laundering - official corruption remains a major problem

    Paraguay:
    illicit producer of cannabis, most or all of which is consumed in South America; transshipment country for Bolivian cocaine headed for Southern Cone markets and Europe and a limited amount to the US

    Peru:
    until recently the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru has reduced the area of coca under cultivation by 24% to 38,700 hectares at the end of 1999; most of cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia, Bolivia, and Brazil for processing into cocaine for the international drug market, but exports of finished cocaine are increasing by maritime conveyance to Mexico, US, and Europe

    Philippines:
    exports locally produced marijuana and hashish to East Asia, the US, and other Western markets; serves as a transit point for heroin and crystal methamphetamine

    Poland:
    major illicit producer of amphetamines for the international market; minor transshipment point for Asian and Latin American illicit drugs to Western Europe

    Portugal:
    important gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the European market; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

    Romania:
    important transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe

    Russia:
    limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of amphetamines, mostly for domestic consumption; government has active eradication program; increasingly used as transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian opiates and cannabis and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe, possibly to the US, and growing domestic market; major source of heroin precursor chemicals

    Saint Kitts and Nevis:
    transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe

    Saint Lucia:
    transit point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe

    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:
    transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe

    Saudi Arabia:
    death penalty for traffickers; increasing consumption of heroin and cocaine

    Senegal:
    transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis

    Serbia and Montenegro:
    transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route

    Singapore:
    transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to North America, Western Europe, and the Third World; also a money-laundering center

    Slovakia:
    transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe

    Slovenia:
    minor transit point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals

    South Africa:
    transshipment center for heroin and cocaine; cocaine consumption on the rise; world's largest market for illicit methaqualone, usually imported illegally from India through various east African countries; illicit cultivation of marijuana

    Spain:
    key European gateway country for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish entering the European market; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

    Suriname:
    transshipment point for South American drugs destined mostly for Europe

    Switzerland:
    because of more stringent government regulations, used significantly less as a money-laundering center; transit country for and consumer of South American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin

    Syria:
    a transit point for opiates and hashish bound for regional and Western markets

    Tajikistan:
    limited illicit cultivation of cannabis, mostly for domestic consumption; opium poppy cultivation negligible in 1998 because of government eradication program; major transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia to Russia and Western Europe

    Tanzania:
    growing role in transshipment of Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for European and US markets and of South Asian methaqualone bound for Southern Africa

    Taiwan:
    considered an important heroin transit point; major problem with domestic consumption of methamphetamines and heroin

    Thailand:
    a minor producer of opium, heroin, and marijuana; major illicit transit point for heroin en route to the international drug market from Burma and Laos; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been reduced by eradication efforts; also a drug money-laundering center; minor role in amphetamine production for regional consumption; increasing indigenous abuse of methamphetamines and heroin

    Togo:
    transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers

    Trinidad and Tobago:
    transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis

    Turkey:
    key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and - to a far lesser extent the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish, Iranian, and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin are in remote regions of Turkey as well as near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

    Turkmenistan:
    limited illicit cultivator of opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; limited government eradication program; increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia to Russia and Western Europe; also a transshipment point for acetic anhydride destined for Afghanistan

    Turks and Caicos Islands:
    transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US

    Ukraine:
    limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; some synthetic drug production for export to West; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Africa, Latin America, and Turkey, and to Europe and Russia; drug-related money laundering a minor, but growing, problem

    United Arab Emirates:
    growing role as heroin transshipment and money-laundering center due to its proximity to southwest Asian producing countries and the bustling free trade zone in Dubai

    United Kingdom:
    gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the European market; producer and major consumer of synthetic drugs, synthetic precursor chemicals; major consumer of Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering center

    United States:
    consumer of cocaine shipped from Colombia through Mexico and the Caribbean; consumer of heroin, marijuana, and increasingly methamphetamines from Mexico; consumer of high-quality Southeast Asian heroin; illicit producer of cannabis, marijuana, depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and methamphetamines; drug-money-laundering center

    Uzbekistan:
    limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and very small amounts of opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption, almost entirely eradicated by an effective government eradication program; increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs from Afghanistan to Russia and Western Europe and for acetic anhydride destined for Afghanistan

    Venezuela:
    illicit producer of opium for the international drug trade on a small scale; however, large quantities of cocaine and heroin transit the country from Colombia bound for US and Europe; important money-laundering hub; active eradication program primarily targeting opium; increasing signs of drug-related activities by Colombian insurgents on border

    Vietnam:
    minor producer of opium poppy with 2,100 hectares cultivated in 1999, capable of producing 11 metric tons of opium; probably minor transit point for Southeast Asian heroin destined for the US and Europe; growing opium/heroin addiction; possible small-scale heroin production

    Zambia:
    transshipment point for methaqualone, heroin, and cocaine bound for Southern Africa and Europe; regional money-laundering center

    Zimbabwe:
    significant transit point for African cannabis and South Asian heroin, mandrax, and methamphetamines destined for the South African and European markets

    Archived Drug Related Stories in the Media

    The US military needs its speed. Med-Tech: Dextro-amphetamine, aka speed, has been banned on college campuses and locker rooms. Why, then, does the military threaten to ground pilots who refuse to take the drug? ...More from Wired News

    Schoolchildren will learn how to tackle crack. The drive to educate youngsters about the highly addictive nature of crack will also be linked to educating parents about the dangers of the drug and its connection to gun crime and gang culture ...More from The Times

    Study finds that three most popular teen drug prevention programs have no long-term effect. The news is devastating for parents who were hoping to pre-empt their kids' use of drugs with school or community-based prevention programs. But the findings could be a blessing in disguise for communities that are committed to keeping their kids safe from drugs and other risky behaviors ...More from Internet Wire

    Will your teen succumb to risky behaviors during summer vacation? Adolescence is a period of high risk when kids are especially vulnerable to peer pressure to engage in alcohol and substance abuse and other risky behaviors. During the long Summer vacation, the “heat is on” even more. Is there anything you can do to protect your teen? Try this short quiz and tips from a top prevention expert ...More from Internet Wire

    Drug tests backed for broader pool of students. The US Supreme Court gave its approval yesterday to the random drug testing of public high school students in extracurricular activities, a ruling that increases the tools available to some 14,700 public school systems to fight illegal drug use ...More from the Washington Post

    The overlap between schools and crime. Drugs, truancy, prison, exclusions ... that'll be education then ...More from the BBC

    Zero tolerance for school drug dealers. Drug dealers who target children at the school gate could face harsher penalties under a new law being considered by ministers ...More from the BBC

    Study Shows Early Drinking Is A Predictor Of Regular Marijuana Use. A recent study published by the Institute for Prevention Research, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, showed that 7th-graders who reported that they had been intoxicated from drinking at least once were significantly more likely to be regular marijuana users in the 12th-grade; boys were 4.44 times more likely, and girls were 4.68 times more likely ...More from Internet Wire

    News Of Harry's drug taking and drinking upsets the royal apple cart. If it can happen to a prince, what's an ordinary parent to do? The news that Prince Harry of Britain was found drinking and using drugs while his father and brother were out of town has given many conscientious parents pause for thought. If a royal prince is vulnerable, what's a hard-working parent to do to protect his or her teens when they're not at home to supervise? ...More from Internet Wire

    Drug Addicted Babies. It is estimated that one-half to three-quarters of a million infants born each year have been prenatally exposed to one or more illicit drugs. Legal drugs, like alcohol and tobacco, raise the figure to more than one million substance exposed infants ...More from About.com

    Saying No. A large, randomized study of more than 3,000 New York City schoolchildren (mostly black and Hispanic) has shown for the first time that a school-based prevention program that teaches drug refusal skills, and other essential behaviors to early adolescents, can significantly decrease binge drinking for as long as two years after the initial intervention ...More from Internet Wire

    Bad company? It is evident that drug use among teens is an increasing problem across the US. However, it is important to realize the threat of drug use in and around our communities is very real. Most parents believe their parental upbringing is sufficient and their children would never voluntarily associate themselves with people that use drugs, but it happens ...More from Internet Wire

    Getting the FDA Hooked on Ecstasy. Using a strategy that might have disoriented Tim Leary and Ken Kesey, a researcher scores an US Federal Drugs Administration approved human study for using Ecstasy as a therapy ...More from Wired News

    Scientists warn of 'super athletes'. Drug cheats are on the verge of using genetic engineering to increase stamina and speed, sport scientists warn. And they estimate that 2012 could be the first Olympics to have artificially produced super-athletes in action ...More from the BBC

    University launches course on smoking. The University of Florida is running a course on smoking. The course, titled Epidemiology and health issues of tobacco addiction, has been set up for students with an interest in a medical career. The online course deals with the history, effects and social impact of smoking and claims to be the first of its kind ...More from Ananova

    Canada makes cannabis legal. Canadians are now able to start using marijuana for medical purposes legally. New rules also provide for the world’s first government-run centre for cultivating the drug ...More from the Times

    Student solves problem for global drugs firm. A UK student has solved a problem which baffled experts at an international drugs company. Andy Cartwright, 22, from the University of Sunderland improved purity levels on one of GlaxoSmithKline's production lines ...More from Ananova

    Just Say No to College Aid? Dodging questions about drugs can keep qualified students out of college thanks to President Bush, who by the way never did say whether he did coke. Now, a group of students is hopping mad and out to change the law. ...More from Wired News

    UK Police to go softer on soft drugs. Police chiefs have agreed a controversial scheme not to prosecute people who are found with small amounts of cannabis. It is hoped the radical policy which will be put on trial in Brixton in South London will help police target drugs like cocaine and heroin. Officers will issue an on-the-spot warning and confiscate the drugs but the matter will go no further ...More from ITN

    An Assembly Line For Drug Discovery. The landmark mapping of the human genetic code has set off a race to decipher the role of individual genes in disease and to use that information to design new drugs. Scientists are combining expertise in biology, laboratory automation and information technology to build a system to accelerate this process. Just as Henry Ford created the first assembly line to build automobiles, Aptus scientists are designing a system to analyze genes and discover new drugs on an industrial scale ...More from the Washington Post

    Program offers US teens 'unfiltered' look at tobacco addiction. This is the true story of five strangers, picked to live together and have their lives taped. Find out what happens when people stop being polite and start getting real. Nicole is a 16-year-old sophomore at Columbia High School in White Salmon. She is one of five teen-age smokers taking part in Washington state's anti-tobacco online reality show, Unfiltered: No Tobacco, No Privacy. ...More from CNN

    High Court Nixes Medical Pot. Declaring that marijuana use has no medical benefits, the US Supreme Court says provisions of the Controlled Substances Act should carry no exceptions. ...More from Wired News

    UK Adolescent Assessment Services Says one % of 12 year-olds has tried heroin. "Some totals were so high, we genuinely didn't want to believe them" - spokesman Jeremy Gluck, commenting on a new survey in the Mirror ...More from What The Papers Say

    Memory expert says Ecstasy may cause long-term brain damage among young people. Speaking at the British Psychological Society's centenary conference, Dr Tom Hefferman said that Ecstasy "can have a very damaging effect on your cognitive health," according to the Times ...More from What The Papers Say

    Dr. Martin Plant says parents should take responsibility for keeping kids off drugs. Presenting the results of the British part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs at the Royal College of Physicians, Dr Plant revealed that 36 % of 15 and 16-year-olds interviewed "had tried drugs, including cannabis and ecstasy," says The Telegraph... More from What The Papers Say

    University attacked over tobacco deal. A university's decision to accept a £4 million ($6m) sponsorship from British American Tobacco has been criticised by cancer charities... More from the Times

    Legal Ecstasy in Five Years? One expert says the drug known as ecstasy can be approved by the FDA in five years. Those who say they've benefited from it share why they hope he's right... More from Wired News

    Fruit Fly Key to Cocaine High? Scientists found that fruit flies possess a protein that mirrors the effect of cocaine in human beings. It could lead to a better understanding of the addictive nature of the drug... More from Wired News

    US National Institute on Drug Abuse says cannabis is as addictive as heroin. "The findings are the strongest evidence yet that cannabis is chemically, and psychologically, addictive, and will intensify debate on the merits of decriminalisation" - The Times... More from What The Papers Say

    European Monitoring Centre for Drugs says Britain is "drug-taking capital of Europe". "The annual report of the EU's drugs agency reveals that one in five citizens of the 15 member states have tried cannabis at least once - up five million on last year's estimate. But the study reveals that the drug culture in the UK is by far the most deep-seated in Europe" - The Express... More from What The Papers Say

    The US Fed's Deal on Drugs. Just say no to drugs -- or you might not be able to receive federal financial aid. A law passed last year bars students convicted of drug-related offences from receiving federal aid. More from US News

    The Agony of Ecstasy. A Canadian researcher's study suggests that long-term use of the drug ecstasy won't leave you feeling very happy. In fact, says Dr. Steven Kish, E could leave you permanently brain-damaged... More from Wired News

    Don't you Dare. Home schoolers not allowed to graduate from DARE. Three home-schooled students in New Hampshire were denied the chance to graduate from the DARE anti-drug education program because they were instructed in the program's curriculum by a parent and not a state certified instructor. ...More from CNSNews.com

    Outside links for information on drugs:

  • About.Com Drug Testing Law
  • Acidland
  • Australian National Council on Drugs
  • BBC Education Illegal Drugs Information
  • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco & Firearms ATF
  • Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids
  • Canadian Foundation for Drug Policy
  • Center On Addiction and Substance Abuse Columbia
  • Change the Climate
  • Cheeo - For and against marijuana
  • Common Sense For Drug Policy
  • Cyber-Booze Kids and buying alcohol on the Net
  • Freevibe - Advice on drugs and alcohol USA
  • DEA Drug Enforcement Agency US
  • Drink - Internal Link
  • Drive Drunk, But Don't Smoke
  • Drug Law Reform
  • Drug Minimization - Decriminalization
  • The Drug Story
  • DrugNet BBS, related mailing lists, links
  • Drugs Bite - Helping kids make positive choices
  • Drugs Resource-Net UK
  • FDA Food and Drug Administration US
  • Independent Drug Monitoring Unit - Students & solicitors info UK
  • ISDD Institute for the Study of Drug Dependence UK
  • The Lindesmith Center Drug policy Research Institute
  • Marijuana Laws For All 50 US States
  • Medical Sites - Internal Link
  • Mothers Against Misuse and Abuse MAMA
  • Movement Against Corruption & Complicity - Gov./Private Sector
  • Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies
  • National Drug Strategy Network
  • New Scientist - Marijuana Special Report
  • Opioids - Past, present and future
  • Office of National Drug Control Policy - The Whitehouse US
  • Pregnancy and Drugs - Mothersbliss UK
  • Recreational Drugs - Legal, political, medical & scientific info
  • SCODA Standing Conference on Drug Abuse UK
  • Tackling Drugs to Build a Better Britain UK Government Strategy

    Medicine Links:

  • Medline U.S. National Library of Medicine
  • NHS R&D Centre for Evidence Based Medicine UK

    Please note that the information on this page is provided as a guide only to try to help deal with drugs and the problems associated with them. It is not a complete guide and individuals must make their own decisions with regards to any action they take.

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