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  • Boundary, n.

    In political geography, an imaginary line between two nations, separating the imaginary rights of one from the imaginary rights of another.

    Ambrose Bierce, The Devil's Dictionary

  • brings you the World

    Extensive information about every country and geographic area in the world. Please choose a link below

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    Click here for every country background and profile in the World including geography, map, flag, people, literacy, government, economy, communications, transportation, illicit drugs production, international disputes, military...

    Climate of Countries

    Windows Tip: Press Control and F to search this page.
    arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

    mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

    arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

    American Samoa:
    tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

    temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

    semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

    tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

    severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing

    Antigua and Barbuda:
    tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

    Arctic Ocean:
    polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

    mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

    highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

    tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

    Ashmore and Cartier Islands:

    Atlantic Ocean:
    tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to November

    generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north

    temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers

    dry, semiarid steppe

    Bahamas, The:
    tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

    arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

    Baker Island:
    equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

    tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

    tropical; rainy season (June to October)

    Bassas da India:

    cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime

    temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

    tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)

    tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

    subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

    varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

    varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

    Bosnia and Herzegovina:
    hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

    semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

    Bouvet Island:

    mostly tropical, but temperate in south

    British Indian Ocean Territory:
    tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

    British Virgin Islands:
    subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

    tropical; hot, humid, rainy

    temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

    Burkina Faso:
    tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

    tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

    equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and December to January

    tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

    varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north

    varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

    Cape Verde:
    temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic

    Cayman Islands:
    tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

    Central African Republic:
    tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

    tropical in south, desert in north

    temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south

    extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

    Christmas Island:
    tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

    Clipperton Island:
    tropical, humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, rains May-October

    Cocos (Keeling) Islands:
    pleasant, modified by the southeast trade winds for about nine months of the year; moderate rainfall

    tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

    tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

    Congo, Democratic Republic of the:
    tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season April to October, dry season December to February; south of Equator - wet season November to March, dry season April to October

    Congo, Republic of the:
    tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator

    Cook Islands:
    tropical; moderated by trade winds

    Coral Sea Islands:

    Costa Rica:
    tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands

    Cote d'Ivoire:
    tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)

    Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

    tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)

    temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, winters

    Czech Republic:
    temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

    temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers

    desert; torrid, dry

    tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

    Dominican Republic:
    tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall

    tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands

    desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

    El Salvador:
    tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands

    Equatorial Guinea:
    tropical; always hot, humid

    hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in coastal desert

    maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

    tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

    Europa Island:

    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):
    cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January and February, but does not accumulate

    Faroe Islands:
    mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

    tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

    cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

    generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean

    French Guiana:
    tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation

    French Polynesia:
    tropical, but moderate

    French Southern and Antarctic Lands:

    tropical; always hot, humid

    Gambia, The:
    tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May)

    Gaza Strip:
    temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers

    warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

    temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm foehn wind

    tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

    Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

    Glorioso Islands:

    temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

    arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters

    tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds

    subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity

    tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January to June, rainy season from July to December; little seasonal temperature variation

    tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands

    temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of days are overcast

    generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

    tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

    tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)

    tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

    Heard Island and McDonald Islands:

    Holy See (Vatican City):
    temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry summers (May to September)

    subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains

    Hong Kong:
    tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

    Howland Island:
    equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

    temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

    temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp, cool summers

    varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

    Indian Ocean:
    northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November in the northern Indian Ocean and January/February in the southern Indian Ocean

    tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

    mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

    mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq

    temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time

    temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas

    predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south

    tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior

    Jan Mayen:
    arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog

    varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

    Jarvis Island:
    tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

    temperate; mild winters and cool summers

    Johnston Atoll:
    tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little seasonal temperature variation

    mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

    Juan de Nova Island:

    continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

    varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

    Kingman Reef:
    tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds

    tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

    Korea, North:
    temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer

    Korea, South:
    temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter

    dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters

    dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone

    tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season (December to April)

    maritime; wet, moderate winters

    Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows

    temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers

    tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers

    Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

    continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

    transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

    modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

    subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

    Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of:
    warm, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

    tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

    sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)

    tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons

    tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

    subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

    Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

    Man, Isle of:
    cool summers and mild winters; temperate; overcast about one-third of the time

    Marshall Islands:
    wet season from May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt

    tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average; average temperature 17.3 degrees C; humid

    desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

    tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)

    tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)

    varies from tropical to desert

    Micronesia, Federated States of:
    tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasionally severe damage

    Midway Islands:
    subtropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds

    moderate winters, warm summers

    Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

    desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

    tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation

    Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior

    tropical to subtropical

    desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

    tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)

    Navassa Island:
    marine, tropical

    varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south

    temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

    Netherlands Antilles:
    tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds

    New Caledonia:
    tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid

    New Zealand:
    temperate with sharp regional contrasts

    tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands

    desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south

    varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

    tropical; modified by southeast trade winds

    Norfolk Island:
    subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

    Northern Mariana Islands:
    tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy season July to October

    temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior; rainy year-round on west coast

    dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south

    Pacific Ocean:
    planetary air pressure systems and resultant wind patterns exhibit remarkable uniformity in the south and east; trade winds and westerly winds are well-developed patterns, modified by seasonal fluctuations; tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico from June to October and affect Mexico and Central America; continental influences cause climatic uniformity to be much less pronounced in the eastern and western regions at the same latitude in the North Pacific Ocean; the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy season occurs during the summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow from the ocean over the land, and a dry season during the winter months, when dry winds blow from the Asian landmass back to the ocean; tropical cyclones (typhoons) may strike southeast and east Asia from May to December

    mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

    wet season May to November; hot and humid

    Palmyra Atoll:
    equatorial, hot, and very rainy

    tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May)

    Papua New Guinea:
    tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation

    Paracel Islands:

    subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west

    varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes

    tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)

    Pitcairn Islands:
    tropical, hot, humid; modified by southeast trade winds; rainy season (November to March)

    temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers

    maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

    Puerto Rico:
    tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation

    desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer

    tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry from May to November, hot and rainy from November to April

    temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

    ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast

    temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

    Saint Helena:
    Saint Helena - tropical; marine; mild, tempered by trade winds; Tristan da Cunha - temperate; marine, mild, tempered by trade winds (tends to be cooler than Saint Helena)

    Saint Kitts and Nevis:
    tropical tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

    Saint Lucia:
    tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January to April, rainy season from May to August

    Saint Pierre and Miquelon:
    cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy

    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:
    tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

    tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season (May to October)

    San Marino:
    Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

    Sao Tome and Principe:
    tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)

    Saudi Arabia:
    harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature

    tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind

    Serbia and Montenegro:
    in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland

    tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)

    Sierra Leone:
    tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry season (December to April)

    tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry seasons; thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)

    temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

    Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

    Solomon Islands:
    tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather

    principally desert; December to February - northeast monsoon, moderate temperatures in north and very hot in south; May to October - southwest monsoon, torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

    South Africa:
    mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights

    South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands:
    variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow

    Southern Ocean:
    sea temperatures vary from about 10 degrees Centigrade to -2 degrees Centigrade; cyclonic storms travel eastward around the continent and frequently are intense because of the temperature contrast between ice and open ocean; the ocean area from about latitude 40 south to the Antarctic Circle has the strongest average winds found anywhere on Earth; in winter the ocean freezes outward to 65 degrees south latitude in the Pacific sector and 55 degrees south latitude in the Atlantic sector, lowering surface temperatures well below 0 degrees Centigrade; at some coastal points intense persistent drainage winds from the interior keep the shoreline ice-free throughout the winter

    temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast

    Spratly Islands:

    Sri Lanka:
    tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)

    tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season (April to October)

    tropical; moderated by trade winds

    arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year

    varies from tropical to near temperate

    temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

    temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers

    mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically hitting Damascus

    tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year

    midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

    varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

    tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid

    tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

    tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)

    tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)

    Trinidad and Tobago:
    tropical; rainy season (June to December)

    Tromelin Island:

    temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south

    temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

    subtropical desert

    Turks and Caicos Islands:
    tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry

    tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)

    tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

    temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot in the south

    United Arab Emirates:
    desert; cooler in eastern mountains

    United Kingdom:
    temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast

    United States:
    mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains

    warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown

    mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east

    tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds

    tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

    tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)

    Virgin Islands:
    subtropical, tempered by easterly trade winds, relatively low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to November

    Wake Island:

    Wallis and Futuna:
    tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool, dry season (May to October); rains 2,500-3,000 mm per year (80% humidity); average temperature 26.6 degrees C

    West Bank:
    temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters

    Western Sahara:
    hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore air currents produce fog and heavy dew

    two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather narrow temperate zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to subtropical climates

    mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east

    tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)

    tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)

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    An Ed-U-Kate production. This page was produced 12th June 2000 and last edited 9th June 2015., its characters, names & related indicia ©
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