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  • Boundary, n.

    In political geography, an imaginary line between two nations, separating the imaginary rights of one from the imaginary rights of another.

    Ambrose Bierce, The Devil's Dictionary

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    Climate of Countries

    Windows Tip: Press Control and F to search this page.
    Afghanistan:
    arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

    Albania:
    mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

    Algeria:
    arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

    American Samoa:
    tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

    Andorra:
    temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

    Angola:
    semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

    Anguilla:
    tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

    Antarctica:
    severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing

    Antigua and Barbuda:
    tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

    Arctic Ocean:
    polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

    Argentina:
    mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

    Armenia:
    highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

    Aruba:
    tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

    Ashmore and Cartier Islands:
    tropical

    Atlantic Ocean:
    tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to November

    Australia:
    generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north

    Austria:
    temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers

    Azerbaijan:
    dry, semiarid steppe

    Bahamas, The:
    tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

    Bahrain:
    arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

    Baker Island:
    equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

    Bangladesh:
    tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

    Barbados:
    tropical; rainy season (June to October)

    Bassas da India:
    tropical

    Belarus:
    cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime

    Belgium:
    temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

    Belize:
    tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)

    Benin:
    tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

    Bermuda:
    subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

    Bhutan:
    varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

    Bolivia:
    varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

    Bosnia and Herzegovina:
    hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

    Botswana:
    semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

    Bouvet Island:
    antarctic

    Brazil:
    mostly tropical, but temperate in south

    British Indian Ocean Territory:
    tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

    British Virgin Islands:
    subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

    Brunei:
    tropical; hot, humid, rainy

    Bulgaria:
    temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

    Burkina Faso:
    tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

    Burma:
    tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

    Burundi:
    equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and December to January

    Cambodia:
    tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

    Cameroon:
    varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north

    Canada:
    varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

    Cape Verde:
    temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic

    Cayman Islands:
    tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

    Central African Republic:
    tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

    Chad:
    tropical in south, desert in north

    Chile:
    temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south

    China:
    extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

    Christmas Island:
    tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

    Clipperton Island:
    tropical, humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, rains May-October

    Cocos (Keeling) Islands:
    pleasant, modified by the southeast trade winds for about nine months of the year; moderate rainfall

    Colombia:
    tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

    Comoros:
    tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

    Congo, Democratic Republic of the:
    tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season April to October, dry season December to February; south of Equator - wet season November to March, dry season April to October

    Congo, Republic of the:
    tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator

    Cook Islands:
    tropical; moderated by trade winds

    Coral Sea Islands:
    tropical

    Costa Rica:
    tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands

    Cote d'Ivoire:
    tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)

    Croatia:
    Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

    Cuba:
    tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)

    Cyprus:
    temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, winters

    Czech Republic:
    temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

    Denmark:
    temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers

    Djibouti:
    desert; torrid, dry

    Dominica:
    tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

    Dominican Republic:
    tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall

    Ecuador:
    tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands

    Egypt:
    desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

    El Salvador:
    tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands

    Equatorial Guinea:
    tropical; always hot, humid

    Eritrea:
    hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in coastal desert

    Estonia:
    maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

    Ethiopia:
    tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

    Europa Island:
    tropical

    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):
    cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January and February, but does not accumulate

    Faroe Islands:
    mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

    Fiji:
    tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

    Finland:
    cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

    France:
    generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean

    French Guiana:
    tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation

    French Polynesia:
    tropical, but moderate

    French Southern and Antarctic Lands:
    antarctic

    Gabon:
    tropical; always hot, humid

    Gambia, The:
    tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May)

    Gaza Strip:
    temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers

    Georgia:
    warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

    Germany:
    temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm foehn wind

    Ghana:
    tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

    Gibraltar:
    Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

    Glorioso Islands:
    tropical

    Greece:
    temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

    Greenland:
    arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters

    Grenada:
    tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds

    Guadeloupe:
    subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity

    Guam:
    tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January to June, rainy season from July to December; little seasonal temperature variation

    Guatemala:
    tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands

    Guernsey:
    temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of days are overcast

    Guinea:
    generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

    Guinea-Bissau:
    tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

    Guyana:
    tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)

    Haiti:
    tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

    Heard Island and McDonald Islands:
    antarctic

    Holy See (Vatican City):
    temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry summers (May to September)

    Honduras:
    subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains

    Hong Kong:
    tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

    Howland Island:
    equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

    Hungary:
    temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

    Iceland:
    temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp, cool summers

    India:
    varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

    Indian Ocean:
    northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November in the northern Indian Ocean and January/February in the southern Indian Ocean

    Indonesia:
    tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

    Iran:
    mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

    Iraq:
    mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq

    Ireland:
    temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time

    Israel:
    temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas

    Italy:
    predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south

    Jamaica:
    tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior

    Jan Mayen:
    arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog

    Japan:
    varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

    Jarvis Island:
    tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

    Jersey:
    temperate; mild winters and cool summers

    Johnston Atoll:
    tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little seasonal temperature variation

    Jordan:
    mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

    Juan de Nova Island:
    tropical

    Kazakhstan:
    continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

    Kenya:
    varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

    Kingman Reef:
    tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds

    Kiribati:
    tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

    Korea, North:
    temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer

    Korea, South:
    temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter

    Kuwait:
    dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters

    Kyrgyzstan:
    dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone

    Laos:
    tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season (December to April)

    Latvia:
    maritime; wet, moderate winters

    Lebanon:
    Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows

    Lesotho:
    temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers

    Liberia:
    tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers

    Libya:
    Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

    Liechtenstein:
    continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

    Lithuania:
    transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

    Luxembourg:
    modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

    Macau:
    subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

    Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of:
    warm, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

    Madagascar:
    tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

    Malawi:
    sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)

    Malaysia:
    tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons

    Maldives:
    tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

    Mali:
    subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

    Malta:
    Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

    Man, Isle of:
    cool summers and mild winters; temperate; overcast about one-third of the time

    Marshall Islands:
    wet season from May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt

    Martinique:
    tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average; average temperature 17.3 degrees C; humid

    Mauritania:
    desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

    Mauritius:
    tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)

    Mayotte:
    tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)

    Mexico:
    varies from tropical to desert

    Micronesia, Federated States of:
    tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasionally severe damage

    Midway Islands:
    subtropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds

    Moldova:
    moderate winters, warm summers

    Monaco:
    Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

    Mongolia:
    desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

    Montserrat:
    tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation

    Morocco:
    Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior

    Mozambique:
    tropical to subtropical

    Namibia:
    desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

    Nauru:
    tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)

    Navassa Island:
    marine, tropical

    Nepal:
    varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south

    Netherlands:
    temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

    Netherlands Antilles:
    tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds

    New Caledonia:
    tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid

    New Zealand:
    temperate with sharp regional contrasts

    Nicaragua:
    tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands

    Niger:
    desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south

    Nigeria:
    varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

    Niue:
    tropical; modified by southeast trade winds

    Norfolk Island:
    subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

    Northern Mariana Islands:
    tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy season July to October

    Norway:
    temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior; rainy year-round on west coast

    Oman:
    dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south

    Pacific Ocean:
    planetary air pressure systems and resultant wind patterns exhibit remarkable uniformity in the south and east; trade winds and westerly winds are well-developed patterns, modified by seasonal fluctuations; tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico from June to October and affect Mexico and Central America; continental influences cause climatic uniformity to be much less pronounced in the eastern and western regions at the same latitude in the North Pacific Ocean; the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy season occurs during the summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow from the ocean over the land, and a dry season during the winter months, when dry winds blow from the Asian landmass back to the ocean; tropical cyclones (typhoons) may strike southeast and east Asia from May to December

    Pakistan:
    mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

    Palau:
    wet season May to November; hot and humid

    Palmyra Atoll:
    equatorial, hot, and very rainy

    Panama:
    tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May)

    Papua New Guinea:
    tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation

    Paracel Islands:
    tropical

    Paraguay:
    subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west

    Peru:
    varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes

    Philippines:
    tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)

    Pitcairn Islands:
    tropical, hot, humid; modified by southeast trade winds; rainy season (November to March)

    Poland:
    temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers

    Portugal:
    maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

    Puerto Rico:
    tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation

    Qatar:
    desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer

    Reunion:
    tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry from May to November, hot and rainy from November to April

    Romania:
    temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

    Russia:
    ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast

    Rwanda:
    temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

    Saint Helena:
    Saint Helena - tropical; marine; mild, tempered by trade winds; Tristan da Cunha - temperate; marine, mild, tempered by trade winds (tends to be cooler than Saint Helena)

    Saint Kitts and Nevis:
    tropical tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

    Saint Lucia:
    tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January to April, rainy season from May to August

    Saint Pierre and Miquelon:
    cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy

    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:
    tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

    Samoa:
    tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season (May to October)

    San Marino:
    Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

    Sao Tome and Principe:
    tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)

    Saudi Arabia:
    harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature

    Senegal:
    tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind

    Serbia and Montenegro:
    in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland

    Seychelles:
    tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)

    Sierra Leone:
    tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry season (December to April)

    Singapore:
    tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry seasons; thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)

    Slovakia:
    temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

    Slovenia:
    Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

    Solomon Islands:
    tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather

    Somalia:
    principally desert; December to February - northeast monsoon, moderate temperatures in north and very hot in south; May to October - southwest monsoon, torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

    South Africa:
    mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights

    South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands:
    variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow

    Southern Ocean:
    sea temperatures vary from about 10 degrees Centigrade to -2 degrees Centigrade; cyclonic storms travel eastward around the continent and frequently are intense because of the temperature contrast between ice and open ocean; the ocean area from about latitude 40 south to the Antarctic Circle has the strongest average winds found anywhere on Earth; in winter the ocean freezes outward to 65 degrees south latitude in the Pacific sector and 55 degrees south latitude in the Atlantic sector, lowering surface temperatures well below 0 degrees Centigrade; at some coastal points intense persistent drainage winds from the interior keep the shoreline ice-free throughout the winter

    Spain:
    temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast

    Spratly Islands:
    tropical

    Sri Lanka:
    tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)

    Sudan:
    tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season (April to October)

    Suriname:
    tropical; moderated by trade winds

    Svalbard:
    arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year

    Swaziland:
    varies from tropical to near temperate

    Sweden:
    temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

    Switzerland:
    temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers

    Syria:
    mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically hitting Damascus

    Taiwan:
    tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year

    Tajikistan:
    midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

    Tanzania:
    varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

    Thailand:
    tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid

    Togo:
    tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

    Tokelau:
    tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)

    Tonga:
    tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)

    Trinidad and Tobago:
    tropical; rainy season (June to December)

    Tromelin Island:
    tropical

    Tunisia:
    temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south

    Turkey:
    temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

    Turkmenistan:
    subtropical desert

    Turks and Caicos Islands:
    tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry

    Tuvalu:
    tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)

    Uganda:
    tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

    Ukraine:
    temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot in the south

    United Arab Emirates:
    desert; cooler in eastern mountains

    United Kingdom:
    temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast

    United States:
    mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains

    Uruguay:
    warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown

    Uzbekistan:
    mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east

    Vanuatu:
    tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds

    Venezuela:
    tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

    Vietnam:
    tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)

    Virgin Islands:
    subtropical, tempered by easterly trade winds, relatively low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to November

    Wake Island:
    tropical

    Wallis and Futuna:
    tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool, dry season (May to October); rains 2,500-3,000 mm per year (80% humidity); average temperature 26.6 degrees C

    West Bank:
    temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters

    Western Sahara:
    hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore air currents produce fog and heavy dew

    World:
    two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather narrow temperate zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to subtropical climates

    Yemen:
    mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east

    Zambia:
    tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)

    Zimbabwe:
    tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)




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