Country's Backgrounds and Profiles...

                    education

education directory
Ed Share

 Education Resources:
Homepage | Web Search
Education Resources
Art | Film | Dance | Bands
Countries of the World
Digs UK | US | Canada
Finance | Economics/Biz
Homework Helpers | Exams
Kiddies Korner | Tots | Pets
Jobs UK/EU | US | Canada
Bartending Work
Medicine and Health
Museums and Galleries
Mystery Shopping
PE | Sports | Sporting Events
Power & Politics | Civil Rights
Print Media, TV and Radio
Problems and Advice
Shops | Fashion | Books
Subjects | Religion | Language
Technology Education & ICT
Teens | Just for Fun
Travel
Schools UK | US | Canada
Unis/Colls UK | US | Canada

 Special Features:
Essays - Full Writing Course
What is Bullying?
Stress in Teaching
Drugs
Online Education

 Guest Contributors:
The best Dad?
You're an Idiot!
Slave Caster of Freedom
Out of the mouths of babes
The Right to Life?
The Nostradamus Hoaxes
Explaining terrorism to a child
Internet 2 a scam?
Break a Rule, Bad Girl
Britannica near extinction?
The 1st time I really lied
Nigerian Scam Letters
Singular turns plural
English Writing
In debt?
The Secret Shopper
Too busy at work?
Bullying... Our Stories
Start to live your dreams
Recognize your potential
Stop worrying, please!
Public speaking
Elegant resumes
In praise of black sheep
Ritalin - Straight-jacketing?

 Webmasters' Education:
Start here - Why me?
Slow pages equal more traffic

 Finance Partners:
Cover Base Life Insurance
Finding Life Insurance Cover
Annuity Comparisons
Aviva Annuities
Buy To Let Mortgages
Commercial Insurance
Inheritance Tax
Pension Misselling
Annuities Comparison
Enhanced Annuities
Pension Annuity Answers
Annuity Office
Annuity Plan
Annuities Plan
Annuities Central
Open Market Option
Capped Drawdown
Mortgage Comparisons
Hidden Mortgages
Barclaycard PPI Claims
PPI Claims
PPI Complaints
PPI Refunds
Barclays PPI Claim
Lloyds PPI Claim
RBS PPI Claims
Wrongly Sold PPI
PPI Justice

ed-u.com's full list of pages

ed-u.com brings you the World

Extensive information about every country and geographic area in the world. Please choose a link below

The Mystery Shopping Club

(Operated by ed-u.com's sister site)


Are you a student over 18? Part-time teacher? Parent? Just someone that needs some extra income? Some free food and drinks perhaps? Would you like to pick your own hours? - Casual work is available to you now...

The following is an article taken from Choices Magazine after a visit to the Mystery Shopping Club.

"Wanted: Shopaholic nosey parker with excellent observational skills, a good ear and flexible attitude to part-time work. Anyone can apply. Work available in all areas. Must be prepared to eat free meals, enjoy shopping discounts and visit pubs - and be paid for it."

Believe it or not, the above job advertisement is not as far fetched as it sounds. If you love shopping, you'll be pleased to hear that it's possible to shop for a living. In fact, it's a multi-million pound industry for market research companies who employ "mystery shoppers" to shop up and down the country - all in the name of customer service and research.

There are a number of mystery shopping companies who organise whole armies of professional shoppers on behalf of retailers, pubs, restaurants, banks and other service industries. Their mission? To mingle in, look inconspicuous and file a report on anything from customer service to cleanliness in the restrooms.

If you visit one or two pubs in a night, you'll get your food and drink paid for, travel expenses and you'll be paid anything from £6.00 to £8.00 up for each visit.

But there is one problem with mystery shopping: truly dedicated shoppers never switch off from their work. You'll find yourself compulsively evaluating service and checking ceilings for cobwebs even when you're not on duty. It eventually becomes a part of your life.

To find out more about casual employment opportunities in the "Secret Shopper" industry, please visit ed-u.com's sister site:

Click here for the Mystery Shopping Club UK


The Transatlantic Education Mega-Site...

IMPORTANT INFORMATION ppi Have you taken out a credit card, mortgage, secured loan, unsecured loan or hire purchase agreement in the last ten years? If you have (or have had) a mortgage, loan or credit card with providers such as Abbey, Barclaycard, MBNA, Halifax, HSBC, HBOS, Lloyds TSB, Natwest, RBS or in fact any other credit provider, you may be able to reclaim up to 15,000 if you were sold PPI insurance - in most cases even if you've lost the paperwork. Learn more about PPI Claims now!

BECOME A MYSTERY SHOPPER Are you a student over 18? Part-time teacher? Or maybe a parent or just someone that needs some extra income? Some free food and drinks perhaps? Would you like to pick your own hours? Casual work is available now.

The Mystery Shopping Club provides you with an EXCEPTIONAL collation of intelligence that is crucial for anyone with an interest in Mystery Shopping. Become a Mystery Shopper now!

EXCEPTIONAL EDUCATION ADVERTISING OPPORTUNITY It is simple to get your site listed on ed-u.com! You simply pay a small one-time-only administration charge for a PERMANENT lifetime advert! Learn more about advertising on ed-u.com now!

 Austria

Country Flag of Austria


All other countries

Introduction

Geography

People

Government

Economy

Communication

Transportation

Military

Transnational Issues

Country map of Austria

Austria

Introduction

Background: Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies, Austria's 1955 State Treaty declared the country "permanently neutral" as a condition of Soviet military withdrawal. Neutrality, once ingrained as part of the Austrian cultural identity, has been called into question since the Soviet collapse and Austria's increasingly prominent role in European affairs. A prosperous country, Austria joined the European Union in 1995 and the euro monetary system in 1999.

Geography

Location: Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 83,858 sq km
land: 82,738 sq km
water: 1,120 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
total: 2,562 km
border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers

Terrain: in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

Natural resources: iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal, lignite, copper, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 23%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 20% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

People

Population: 8,131,111 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 697,283; female 663,459)
15-64 years: 68% (male 2,787,555; female 2,731,446)
65 years and over: 15% (male 474,067; female 777,301) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.25% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 9.9 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.91 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.68 years
male: 74.52 years
female: 80.99 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.39 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups: German 98%, Croatian, Slovene, other (includes Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma)

Religions: Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%, Muslim and other 17%

Languages: German

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: NA%
female: NA%

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
local short form: Oesterreich

Data code: AU

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Vienna

Administrative divisions: 9 states (bundeslaender, singular - bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence: 1156 (from Bavaria)

National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955)

Constitution: 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 19 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)
head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4 February 2000); Vice Chancellor Susanne RIESS-PASSER (FPOe) (since 4 February 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term; presidential election last held 19 April 1998 (next to be held in the spring of 2004); chancellor traditionally chosen by the president from the plurality party in the National Council; in the case of the current coalition, the chancellor was chosen from another party after the plurality party failed to form a government; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
election results: Thomas KLESTIL reelected president; % of vote - Thomas KLESTIL 63%, Gertraud KNOLL 14%, Heide SCHMIDT 11%, Richard LUGNER 10%, Karl NOWAK 2%
note: government coalition - FPOe and OeVP

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (64 members; members represent each of the states on the basis of population, but with each state having at least three representatives; members serve a four- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Council - last held 3 October 1999 (next to be held in the fall of 2003)
election results: National Council - % of vote by party - SPOe 33.2%, OeVP 26.9%, FPOe 26.9%, Greens 7.4%; seats by party - SPOe 65, OeVP 52, FPOe 52, Greens 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders: Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL, chairman]; Communist Party or KPOe [Walter BAIER, chairman]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Susanne RIESS-PASSER]; Liberal Forum or LF [Heide SCHMIDT]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Viktor KLIMA, chairman]; The Greens or GA [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN, party spokesman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter MOSER
chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kathryn Walt HALL
embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [43] (1) 313-39
FAX: [43] (1) 310-0682

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

Economy

Economy - overview: Austria with its well-developed market economy and high standard of living is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market. Through privatization efforts, the 1996-98 budget consolidation programs, and austerity measures, Austria has brought its total public sector deficit down to 2.1% of GDP in 1999 and public debt - at 63.1% of GDP in 1998 - more or less in line with the 60% of GDP required by the EMU's Maastricht criteria. Cuts mainly have affected the civil service and Austria's generous social benefit system, the two major causes of the government's deficit. To meet increased competition from both EU and Central European countries, Austria will need to emphasize knowledge-based sectors of the economy and deregulate the service sector. Growth, which slowed to 2.0% in 1999, probably will rebound to 2.8% in both 2000 and 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $190.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,400 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1.3%
industry: 32.4%
services: 66.3% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (1999)

Labor force: 3.7 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 68%, industry and crafts 29%, agriculture and forestry 3% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.4% (1999)

Budget:
revenues: $54 billion
expenditures: $59.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism (1997)

Industrial production growth rate: 2.3% (1999)

Electricity - production: 56.066 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 31.46%
hydro: 65.92%
nuclear: 0%
other: 2.62% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 51.891 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 10.5 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 10.25 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber

Exports: $62.9 billion (1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel; textiles, foodstuffs (1998)

Exports - partners: EU 65% (Germany 36%, Italy 9%, France 5%), Switzerland 5%, Hungary 5%, US 4.5% (1999 est.)

Imports: $69.9 billion (1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs (1998)

Imports - partners: EU 70% (Germany 42%, Italy 8%, France 5%), US 5%, Hungary 3%, Switzerland 3% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $31.7 billion (1998)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $452 million (1998)

Currency: 1 Austrian schilling (AS) = 100 groschen

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999); Austrian schillings (AS) per US$1 - 11.86 (January 1999), 12.91 (1999), 12.379 (1998), 12.204 (1997), 10.587 (1996), 10.081 (1995)
note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in some member countries at a fixed rate of 13.7603 Austrian shillings per euro; the euro will replace the local currency in consenting countries for all transactions in 2002

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.726 million (plus 83,100 ISDN or Integrated Services Digital Network connections) (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2.31 million (1998)

Telephone system:
domestic: highly developed and efficient
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 2 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 61 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 6.08 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 51 (plus 920 repeaters) (1999)

Televisions: 4.25 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 35 (1999)

Transportation

Railways:
total: 6,123 km (3,523 km electrified)
standard gauge: 5,639 km 1.435-m gauge (3,429 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 484 km (13 km 0.600-m gauge, 468 km 0.760-m gauge - 94 km electrified, and 3 km 0.600-m gauge) (1999)

Highways: 200,000 km
paved: 200,000 km (including 1,613 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1999)

Waterways: 358 km (1999)

Pipelines: crude oil 777 km; natural gas 840 km (1999)

Ports and harbors: Linz, Vienna, Enns, Krems

Merchant marine:
total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 65,284 GRT/91,951 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 15, combination bulk 2, container 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 55 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 12 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 33
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 29 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army (includes Flying Division)

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,088,993 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,733,681 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 51,335 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.7 billion (FY98)

Military expenditures - % of GDP: 1.2% (FY98)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe

Please click here for a guide to the country profiles

Click here for all other countries

Share

education directory



An Ed-U-Kate production. This page was produced 12th June 2000 and last edited 9th June 2015.
ed-u.com, its characters, names & related indicia ©
Add URL | Link to us | Shop | Safe Shopping Help | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | Contact Information | ArtFair | Home